世界各地的灰姑娘版本

2020年12月10日
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Cinderella around the world: from China to Medieval Europe and further

世界各地的灰姑娘版本

No, it’s not Disney. Neither are the Brothers Grimm. The story of Cinderella is much older and almost every nation has it. She is classified in the Arne-Thompson system as “the persecuted heroine.”

迪士尼和格林童话都不是灰姑娘故事的起源。事实上,灰姑娘的故事非常古老,几乎每个国家都有自己的版本。在Arne-Thompson童话分类法中,这种故事的标签是“被迫害的女主”。

So, it’s the story of a beautiful but harassed girl who obeys her mean stepmother and stepsisters but later her fortune changes and she becomes a princess.

在所有的灰姑娘故事里,女主角都美丽动人但饱受不公,但最后她还是幸运地改变了命运。

Of course, not every culture has named the protagonist as Cinderella . For example, in the Albanian culture there is the story of Hirushja; Askungen in Swedish; Unsgeljin in Mongolian; Zolushka in Russian; Pelenė in Lithuanian; Cendrillon in French; Aschenbrödel in German etc.

当然了,并不是所有灰姑娘都叫辛德瑞拉。在阿尔巴尼亚的灰姑娘故事中,女猪脚的名字是Hirushja;瑞典的灰姑娘叫Askungen;蒙古有Unsgeljin的故事;俄罗斯的是Zolushka;立陶宛的叫Pelenė;法国的叫Cendrillon;德国的是Aschenbrödel。

One of the oldest documented versions of the story appeared in China, around 860. In that version, Ye Xian is incredibly beautiful, kind and gentle girl, who is gifted in many skills such as pottery and poetry. She befriends a fish which embodies the spirit of her mother, but Ye Xian’s stepmother kills the fish.

最古老的版本出现在公元860年的中国,女主人公名叫叶限,是个美丽温柔的姑娘,擅长陶艺和作诗。她的母亲死后化了一条鱼,叶限救了这条鱼,但它还是被后妈杀死了。

Ye Xian saves the bones of the fish which are magical and create her a gown for the New Year Festival where she is recognized by her stepmother and stepsister. While running away from them, she loses her slipper. The king finds the slipper, falls in love with Ye Xian and saves her from the cruelty she lives in.

叶限收集了鱼的骨头,但没想到这些骨头是有魔力的,它们为叶限变出了一件漂亮礼服,让她能去参加春节庆典。叶限在庆典上被后妈和同父异母的妹妹认了出来,在逃走的过程中,她的鞋子跑丢了。拾得鞋子的是国王,他与叶限堕入爱河,并将她从水深火热之中救了出来。

There are also few interesting versions of the story from Iran and the Middle East. One of them is titled as the “Maah Pishànih” which means “The Girl With The Moon On Her Forehead.” These versions have a different beginning of the story – Cinderella kills her mother so that her father could marry the Quran observer in the neighborhood. But her new stepmother is very cruel and her stepsister is stupid and mean.

伊朗和中东地区也有很多有趣的版本,其中一个版本是“额头上戴着月亮的女孩”(Maah Pishànih)。这些版本一开始的清洁有些不一样。灰姑娘的父亲碍于教规,不能和一名邻居结婚,于是灰姑娘帮父亲杀死了自己的母亲。但她的后妈非常恶毒,后妈女儿也又蠢又自私。

She is harassed and lonely, so she befriends either a cow (her mother’s spirit/reincarnation), a fish (sent by her mother or Allah) or a 1000-year-old, underground female demon which becomes her helper. After working hard for her stepmother, she is rewarded with a moon- shaped jewel on her forehead (and a star on her chin or a long golden hair).

灰姑娘受尽屈辱,而且非常孤单,于是跟一头牛成了朋友,这头牛是她妈妈的化身。在另外的版本中,她的朋友是一条鱼(她母亲或真主派来的)或一个千年女巫。不论哪个版本,这些朋友最后都成了她的好帮手。灰姑娘勤勤恳恳地为后妈工作,终于被奖赏了一个月亮形状的额饰。

Then, one day, respectively to the culture, the Sultan, eventually the King, or the Emperor sees her face at a celebration .She escapes as she feels embarrassed (Islamic women should hide their face and stay reserved in front of men) but the King falls in love with her. The plot is pretty similar to the familiar story.

一天,苏丹(一些伊斯兰国家的国王)在庆典上看到了她的脸,一见钟情。灰姑娘觉得很害羞,因为在她们的文化中女性的脸是应该被遮住的,于是她逃走了。后面的故事就跟其它版本很相似了

Also, there are some elements of the story that vary in the different versions and make it creepy and frightening. For example, Disney’s motion picture from 1950 is based on the Brothers Grimm version but the original Grimm’s story is bloodier than the movie.

灰姑娘的故事也有一些血腥元素。原来的格林童话版本就比迪士尼的动画版要惊悚得多。在原来的版本中,灰姑娘的姐姐们为了穿上水晶鞋,把自己的脚趾剁掉了;另外,帮助灰姑娘的也不是仙女,而是一棵许愿树。

In this version, Cinderella’s stepsisters cut off their toes so the golden slipper would fit their feet. Also, instead of a godmother, there is a wishing tree next to her mother’s grave.

在某些版本中,灰姑娘们的父亲与后妈同仇敌忾,一同欺负自己的女儿。而有些版本则是灰姑娘的父亲对此全然不知,离家外出,或者已经去世。

Considering Cinderella’s father, in some versions, he stands with his wife (Cinderella’s stepmother) and humiliates his daughter.In other, he isn’t aware of the situation or he’s presented as being away on a trip or as deceased.

There are versions of the story where the stepmother doesn’t appear at all and Cinderella is harassed by her stepsisters. Sometimes the antagonist is rather a stepfather who oppresses her because he wants to enlarge the dowry of his daughters on account of Cinderella’s belongings.

在讲灰姑娘的故事中,也有继母没有出现的版本,这时候虐待灰姑娘的则是她同父异母的姐妹。也有继父为了帮自己的女儿争得更多嫁妆而欺凌女主的版本。

Is “Cinderella” a story for children? Cinderella who kills her mother or Cinderella’s sisters who cut off their toes? What about Cinderella who is harassed by her stepfather because of obscure reasons? One thing is definitely sure- the world certainly has a vivid imagination and an interesting folklore.

弑母、切脚趾、被继父骚扰,有这些桥段的“灰姑娘”真的还是童话故事吗?这些故事能确切告诉我们的是,世界人民的想象力是无穷的。

小e英语