我们展示出的性格 The Personalities We Stage

2019年9月23日
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我们展示出的性格 The Personalities We Stage
If you are to take a step back and reflect on your personality, how will you characterize yourself?
如果你想退后一步,反思一下你的性格,你会怎么描述自己的特征?

A quiet introvert? An unabashed extrovert? A predominant leader? An accommodating team player? A sensible arbitrator? Or a mix of many roles?
一个安静内向的人?一个不害羞的外向之人?一位占主导地位的领导?一位随和的团队成员?一位明智的仲裁者?或者是一个有多种性格的角色?

If you present yourself in different fashions in front of different people, then what is your true personality? Or is the idea that there is a true personality in everyone a misleading notion?
如果你在不同的人面前展示出不同模样的自己,那么你真正的性格是什么样的呢?或者说认为每个人都有真实性格的看法是一种有误导性的观点?

The social psychologist, Erving Goffman, known for his eccentricity and profound understanding of humans’ social behaviors, has a theory: “we are all just actors trying to control and manage our public image.”
埃尔文·戈夫曼是一位社会心理学家,他因为对人类社会行为有反常而又深刻的理解而著名,他有一个理论:“我们不过是努力想要控制和管理自己的公共形象的演员。”

Mr. Goffman posits that one’s personality is an amalgamation of the roles one chooses to play in a number of contexts one has encountered in his or her life.
戈夫曼先生认为,每个人的个性是其在生活中遇到的许多情境中所选择扮演的角色的融合。

Like actors and actresses whose ultimate goals are to render their characters compelling and coherent, we also entertain the same objective when we decide on how to impress different groups of people that come in and out of our lives and how we want them to think of us.
就像演员们的最终目标是使他们的角色引人注目和连贯一致一样,当我们决定如何给人生遇到的不同群体的人留下印象,以及我们希望他们如何看待我们时,我们也抱有同样的目标。

One could both be diligent at work in the eyes of his or her colleagues, and laid-back at home, leaving tedious house chores to his or her parents.
在同事眼中,一个人可以是勤奋工作的人;在家里,也可以是懒散的人,把沉闷的家务活留给父母做。

Demonstrating reserved modesty in a meeting filled with people higher on the hierarchy and exhibiting outspokenness and acuity of the mind during a post-dinner chat with close friends can often occur within the same person.
在高层人士云集的会议上,表现出含蓄的谦虚,在与密友的餐后闲聊中展示出直言不讳和敏锐的头脑,这种情况经常发生在同一个人身上。

To the core, we are how we choose and what we believe.
说到底,我们是自己选择和相信的那种人。

But on the outside, our personalities are how we represent ourselves to others, a decision predicated on what kinds of interactions we want to achieve with those self-representations.
但在外部看来,我们的性格是我们如何向他人展示自己,这个决定基于我们想要通过这些自我表现来实现什么样的互动。

Although there are variations in different individuals’ personalities, for the majority of us, we strive to make sure that we are presenting ourselves within the bounds of agreed-upon socially appropriate behaviors.
尽管不同的人的性格各不相同,但对我们大多数人来说,我们都在努力确保自己的表现符合公认的社会得体行为。

Those unwritten rules prescribe that people don’t normally yell out curse words in a formal setting, or that they don’t usually address their siblings as if they are their acquaintance-level coworkers.
那些不成文的规则规定,人们在正常情况下不能在正式场合说脏话,或者人们通常也不能以称呼熟悉的同事的方式称呼自己的兄弟姐妹。

When they do, however, there’s probably a hidden message underneath the surface of their infractions of the rules.
然而,当人们这样做时,在他们违反规则的表象下面可能隐藏着一个信息。

Some of those violations might risk their current social standings while others might not.
其中一些违规行为可能会危及他们现有的社会地位,而另一些行为则可能不会。

When a hotel staff member puts aside his courtesy and shouts at a customer in angry expletives, he’s likely to get the pink slip.
如果酒店员工不顾礼节,对着顾客愤怒地大声咒骂,他可能会收到解雇通知书。

On the other hand, when a mother calls her five-year-old son a masterful artist in a faked respectful tone after seeing his messy doodles on the wall, this reversal of roles could be a prelude to a subsequent reprimand.
另一方面,当一位母亲在看到自己五岁的儿子在墙上乱涂乱画之后,以一种假装尊重的语气称他为出色的艺术家时,这种角色的互换可能是随后的训斥的前奏。

Our personalities are statements about ourselves in various situations as we take on different social identities, and, as the thinking goes, you might not want to sum up someone’s personality in a sweeping description like “he’s generous” or “she’s mean.”
我们的性格是我们承担不同社会角色时,在不同的情境下对自身的陈述。按照这样的想法,你可能不想用“他很大度”或者“她很小气”这样的笼统描述来概括一个人的性格。

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