创造力能被测出来吗? Can You Test for Creativity?

2020年5月12日
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创造力能被测出来吗? Can You Test for Creativity?
How many uses can you think of for a toothpick other than picking teeth or facilitating your sampling of a morsel of bread?
除了剔牙或帮助你品尝一小块面包,你还能想到牙签有多少其他用途?

Perhaps you can stick it through your sweater, attach some frilly decorations to its ends, and voila, you’ve got yourself a lovely little homemade brooch.
也许你可以将它穿进你的毛衣,在其两端粘上一些有褶皱边的装饰品,然后,瞧,你有了一个可爱的自制小胸针。

Or you could assemble a bunch of them into a shape that vaguely resembles a tower, or a dwarf’s hat, or a bridge, and glue it onto a sheet of paper.
或者你可以将很多的牙签组合成一个稍微像一座塔或者一个小矮人的帽子或者一座桥的形状,然后将它粘在一张纸上。

You could also use it to support the drooping plant in your flower pot or a mini snowman who looks like it’s going to topple over soon.
你也可以用它来支撑你花盆里下垂的植物,或者一个看起来马上要摇摇欲坠的迷你雪人。

The more uses you can come up with in 60 seconds, the higher score you will get on the “alternative uses test,” one of the many tests devised to gauge your creativity.
你在60秒内想出的用途越多,你在“替代性用途测试”中的得分就会越高,这是用来衡量你的创造力的众多测试之一。

Creativity is among the most desirable qualities that employers and college admission officers value in an applicant, but it didn’t actually get much attention in psychology until the 1960s.
创造力是雇主和大学招生官员在一个申请人身上最看中的品质之一,但直到20世纪60年代,它才在心理学领域得到大量关注。

The revered US psychologist J.P. Guilford at that time contended that the standardized intelligence test, more widely known as the IQ test, failed to take into account any element of creativity.
在那时,备受尊敬的美国心理学家J.P.吉尔福特认为,标准化智力测试(更广泛地被称为智商测验)没有考虑到创造力的任何因素。

For a long time, it was believed that one’s intelligence could be reduced into one summative score.
长期以来,人们认为一个人的智力可以归结为一个总成绩。

In an IQ test, several discrete components of intelligence are rated, including your verbal strength (e.g., the volume of your vocabulary repository and your ability to verbally explain a concept), problem-solving ability, memory, attention, and reasoning.
在智商测验中,智力的几个独立组成部分被评分,包括你的语言能力(比如你的词汇储存量和你口头解释概念的能力)、问题解决能力、记忆力、注意力和推理能力。

It is estimated that about two-thirds of the population can obtain scores between 85 and 115.
据估计,大约2/3的人能够获得85到115分之间的分数。

Only 0.5 percent can score above 145, and they are what we consider as geniuses.
只有0.5%的人能够达到145分以上,他们就是我们所说的天才。

One task in the test, for example, assesses your reasoning by presenting a set of pictures with the last one left blank and asking you to choose from multiple options the one that will fit into the sequence.
比如,测试中的一个任务会向你展示一组最后一张是空着的图片,并且要求你从多个选项中选出一个符合顺序的选项,由此来测试你的推理能力。

It’s basically just a pattern-seeking activity. I’m sure you all have been confronted with such a dreary task in a math practice book during your elementary school years.
本质上,这就是一种寻找模式的活动。我确信你们所有人都在小学的数学练习册上遇到过这样乏味的任务。

The problem with the IQ test, as Guilford’s argument goes, is that it is too static to measure something as complicated and dynamic as one’s intelligence.
吉尔福特认为,智商测验的问题在于它太过静态,无法衡量像智力这样复杂而动态的东西。

In his effort to dig deeper into intelligence, creativity entered the scene, and a stream of research studies ensued to bring out the richness in this human quality.
在他努力深入挖掘智力的过程中,创造力进入该领域,一系列的研究工作随之展开,以揭示这种人类品质的丰富性。

Distinct from the components of intelligence measured in the IQ test, creativity doesn’t proclaim a one-answer-per-question approach to life’s tasks.
与在智商测验中测量的智力成分不同,创造力并不是针对生活中的任务提出一个问题一个答案的方法。

As far as the proverbial saying is concerned, there’s more than one way to skin a cat. (Animal rights advocates, pardon my French.)
正如一个谚语说的那样,要剥皮,不止一法。(动物权益倡导者们,原谅我粗鲁的语言。)

Now, you might ask, “Yes, we all know how important creativity is as a measure of intelligence. Drop the cliche already. The more relevant question should be, is it possible to test for one’s creativity?”
现在你可能会问,“是的,我们都知道创造力对于测量智力有多么重要,不要再老生常谈了。更相关的问题应该是,测试一个人的创造力是否有可能?”

As we all intuitively know, there are assorted types of creative energy.
正如我们直觉所知的那样,创造力有各种不同类型。

The kind of creativity manifested by a mathematician is not the same as the creative force a novelist unleashes through stories.
数学家所展现的那种创造力与小说家通过故事释放出来的创造力是不同的。

In fact, more than 100 or so types of creativity have been scientifically verified.
事实上,已经有100多种类型的创造力得到了科学的验证。

The number is only going to get even bigger as psychologists’ understanding of creativity deepens and advances.
随着心理学家对创造力理解的加深和进步,这个数字只会变得更大。

After seeing the bulk of creativity research, it is hard for me not to assume that everyone is endowed with some creative potential in one way or another, and perhaps part of living is to go on a scavenger hunt for it.
在看过大量关于创造力的研究后,我很难不去假设每个人都以某种方式被赋予了一些创造潜力,也许生活的一部分就是探索自己创造力的寻宝游戏。

Reasonable enough, there have been a collection of different tests designed to evaluate one’s creativity.
合情合理的是,已经有一系列不同的测试来评估一个人的创造力。

Apart from the “alternative uses test,” another example of the tests is the “consequences test,” where you are asked to develop different possible outcomes to a given scenario.
除了“替代性用途测试”,还有一种测试是“结果测试”, 在这个测试中,你被要求为给定的场景发展出不同的可能结果。

What would be the result if a magical, omnipotent ring was lost to a world full of greedy beings?
如果一枚神奇的、无所不能的戒指在一个满是贪婪生物的世界遗失了,结果会怎样呢?

You are not out of mind if this question gives you the urge to write a novel out of it. It was the premise that fanned out into Tolkien’s creative, fantastic, and all-time classic, The Lord of the Rings.
如果这个问题让你有想要写一部小说的冲动,你没有精神失常。这是托尔金写出富有创造性的、不可思议的永恒经典著作《魔戒》的前提。

The IQ test is still extensively used nowadays for want of a more comprehensive alternative.
由于缺乏更全面的选择,智商测验在今天仍然被广泛使用。

The score derived from it is still able to say something about your intelligence, but it is nowhere near portraying the panorama of your immensely creative mind.
由此得出的分数仍然能够说明你的智力水平,但远远不能描绘出你极具创造力的头脑的全貌。

小e英语