不定式短语作主语时,可以直接放在句首,但在很多情况下,尤其是在疑问句和感叹句中,往往放在谓语之后,而用先行代词it作形式主语。下面小编告诉你英语动词不定式的结构及用法,大家一起来看看吧!
英语动词不定式的结构及用法:
1.不定式作主语
To see is to believe.
常用it作形式主语
It’s for sb/It’s of sb
1)for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等:
It’s very hard for him to study two languages.
2)of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, cruel, right。
It’s very nice of you to help me
To serve the people is my great happiness. 为人民服务是我的最大幸福。
It is right to give up smoking.戒烟是对的。
不定式作主语常见句型如下:
a.It is + adj (easy, important, difficult…) + 不定式
b. It is + n (a pity, a pleasure, one’s duty, a shame) + 不定式
c. It takes/needs/requires + some time (hours, months, days, patience…) + 不定式
It’s important for us to learn English well. 我们学好英语很重要。
It’s my duty to teach you how to be a useful person. 教你如何做一个有用的人是我的职责。
It requires patience to be a good teacher. 当个好老师需要耐心。
英语动词不定式的结构及用法
2.不定式作宾语
不定式短语作宾语时,位于及物动词之后。可以直接用不定式作宾语的动词很多,常见 的有:agree, afford, tend, ask, decide, determine, expect, fail, hope, learn, intend, manage, offer, plan, promise, refuse, want, wish等。例如:
I offered to help her, but she refused. 我提出帮助她,但她拒绝了。
He pretended not to hear me. 他假装没听见我(的声音)。
I don’t want to sound like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair.
我不想听起来象在说别人坏话,但经理的计划是不公平的。
如果还带有宾语补足语。往往把不定式宾语放在宾语补足语之后,而用 it作形式宾语。常用动词有feel, think, find, believe, consider, make等。例如:
I find it interesting to work with him. 我发现与他共事很有趣。
We feel it our duty to help others. 我们认为帮助别人是我们的责任。
Science and technology has made it possible for man to fly in space.科学技术已经使人类能够遨游太空了。
下列动词后可接疑问词+不定式:
teach、decide、wonder、show、learn、forget、ask、find out、advise、know等
例如:
Can you teach me how to use the computer? 你能教我使用电脑吗?
I don’t know what to do next. 我不知道下一步怎么办。
I want to speak to Tom.
Please show us how to do that.
3.不定式作宾补
不定式作宾语补足语位于宾语之后,表示宾语的动作或状态。常用于以下动词之后:ask, tell, advise, allow, enable, expect, force, get, like, order, teach, want, invite, wish, beg等。例如:
He asked me to do the work with him.他要我与他一起干。
You should get more people to help you.你应该多找些人帮你。
The teacher expected everyone to study hard,老师希望每个人都努力学习。
注意:
a. 在see,watch,look at,notice, observe,have,let,make, hear,listen to,feel,help等词后的补足语中,不定式不带 to。例如:
I often hear him sing the song.我经常听见他唱这只歌。
The teacher usually made the students recite the text.老师通常让学生背颂课文。
Would you please help me (to) repair my bike?请帮我修理自行车好吗?
但是这些句子如果变成被动结构时, 就必须带 to。例如:
He is often heard to sing the song.人们常听到他唱这只歌。
The students were usually made to recite the text.学生们常被要求背颂课文。
b. 不定式动词在介词 but,except,besides后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词 do的各种形式,那么,这些介词后的不定式不带 to,否则要带 to.如:
She could do nothing but cry.她只是哭。
What do you like to do besides swim? 除了游泳你还喜欢干什么?
c.主句含有不定式,后面有rather than, rather than后省to。
d. Why not、had better、would rather、can’t but等词后省to。如:
He could not but walk home.他只好走回家。
注意:e. 常用带不定式作宾补的几种情况:
(a) 主语 + ask / require / tell / order / force / get / want / like + sb.to do sth.
(b)主语 + think / judge / suppose / believe / consider / imagine / consider / feel + sb. + to be/ to have done
(c)主语 + call on / upon / depend on / wait for / ask for + sb.+ to do sth.
a. Father will not allow us to play on the street.
b. We believe him to be guilty.
4.不定式作表语
不定式可放在连系动词或be动词后面,形成表语。
例如:
My job is to help the patient.我的工作是帮助病人。
Our most important task now is to make a plan.我们现在最重要的任务是制定一个计划。
注:作表语的不定式都带to,但当主语部分有实义动词do时,to可以省略。
例如:
The only thing we can do now is wait and see.我们现在能做的事就是等着看。
My work is to clean the room every day.
英语中“动词+宾语+不定式”结构用法说明:
“动词+宾语+不定式”是英语中一个十分有用的结构,不仅是考试中的重要考点,而且在口语中也用得非常广泛。可用于该结构的常用动词有 advise, allow, ask, bear, beg, cause, command, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, hate, help, intend, invite, leave, like, mean, need, oblige, order, permit, persuade, prefer, request, remind, teach, tell, trouble, want, warn, wish 等。如:
I hate women to smoke. 我不喜欢女人抽烟。
The doctor advised me to take a complete rest. 医生建议我完全休息。
He didn’t allow the students to go there. 他没让学生们去那儿。
The cold weather caused the plants to die. 天气寒冷冻死了植物。
He ordered the work to be started at once. 他命令马上开始工作。
We expected him to arrive yesterday. 我们原认为他昨天会到的。
We invited him to take part in the celebration. 我们邀请他一起参加庆祝会。
The doctor warned him not to smoke. 医生告诫他不要抽烟。
My parents encouraged me to study abroad. 父母鼓励我出国留学。
They forced her to sign [into signing] the paper. 他们强迫她在文件上签字。
He persuaded his wife to change her mind. 他说服他妻子改变了主意。
值得注意的是,汉语中许多“……某人做某事”的情形不能想当然地用此结构来翻译,下面是一些典型的例子:
●汉语可说“害怕某人做某事”,但英语不说 fear sb to do sth。如:
我害怕他会发现我们。
误:I fear him to find us.
正:I fear that he will find us.
●汉语可说“原谅某人做某事”,但英语不说 excuse [forgive] sb to do sth。如:
请原谅我没有早点给你回信。
误:Excuse me not to answer your letter earlier.
误:Excuse me not to have answered your letter earlier.
正:Excuse me for not answering your letter earlier.
正:Excuse me for not having answered your letter earlier.
正:Excuse my not answering your letter earlier.
正:Excuse my not having answered your letter earlier.
●汉语可说“拒绝某人做某事”,但英语不说 refuse sb to do sth。如:
他拒绝我使用他的自行车。
误:He refused me to use his bike.
正:He refused to let me use his bike.
正:He didn’t allow me to use his bike.
●汉语可说“惩罚某人做某事”,但英语不说 punish sb to do sth。如:
老师罚他扫地。
误:The teacher punished him to sweep the floor.
正:The teacher punished him by requiring him to sweep the floor.
●汉语可说“建议某人做某事”,但英语不说 suggest sb to do sth。如:
他妻子建议他戒烟。
误:His wife suggested him to give up smoking.
正:His wife suggested that he (should) give up smoking.
正:His wife suggested his [him] giving up smoking.
正:His wife advised him to give up smoking.
●汉语可说“同意某人做某事”,但英语不说 agree sb to do sth。如:
他们同意我做这事。
误:They agreed me to do it.
正:They agreed to let me do it.
正:They agreed to my doing it.
“for+宾语+不定式”结构用法详解:
1. 用作主语
For you to ask Joe would be a big mistake. 你要是去问乔,那将是一大错误。
For Ann to go to France would make me very happy. 安要是到法国去将使我感到很高兴。
注:这类结构通常会借助形式主语来表达,即在句首使用形式主语,而将真正用作主语的“for+宾语+不定式”结构移至句末。如:
It’s too expensive for me to buy. 太贵了,我买不起。
It’s impossible for me to leave my family. 我是不可能离开家的。
It’s impossible for the job to be finished in time. 这项任务要按时完成是不可能的。
It’s an honour for me to be asked to speak here. 我很荣幸被邀在这里讲话。
It’s a new experience for her to be travelling by plane. 坐飞机对她是—次新经历。
It’ll take time for her to recover from the illness. 她的病要很长时间才能痊愈。
It took twenty minutes for the smoke to clear. 过了20分钟烟才散完。
2. 用作表语
It is for you to decide. 该由你来决定。
His idea is for us to travel in separate cars. 他的意思是我们不要同乘一辆汽车。
Our aim is for students to learn as quickly as possible. 我们的目的是让学生尽快学到东西。
All I want is for us to be together. 我希望的只是我们能在一起。
The simplest thing is for him to resign. 最简单的办法是他辞职。
3. 用作宾语
She hates for people to feel sad. 她不愿看到人们忧心忡忡。
They didn’t mean for her to read the letter. 他们并未打算让她看那封信。
I would like for you to stay as long as you want. 我希望你留下来,想留多久就留多久。
注:这类结构用作宾语的情形主要见于非正式的美国英语中,且主要限于like, hate, mean, intend等少数动词。不过,当有形式宾语时,这类结构用作宾语的情况倒是很普遍(注意形式宾语的使用)。如:
He made it very difficult for us to refuse. 他弄得我们很难拒绝。
I thought it strange for her to be out so late. 她这么晚还不回来,我觉得有些奇怪。
4.用作定语
It’s time for everybody to go to bed. 是大家睡觉的时候了。
There’s nothing for the cats to eat. 猫没有东西可吃了。
Have you got something for me to do? 你给我找了什么事做吗?
All that remains for me to do is to say goodbye. 剩下我所要做的就是告辞了。
5. 用作同位语
He gave orders for one million military personnel to demobilize. 他命令100万军人复员。
英语不定式用法模拟考题:
1. The worrying boy tried many times to crawl over the fence after evening class, ________ each time by the guards in our school.
A. being caught B. only to be caught C. caught D. having been caught
2. The party was a success, but I thought it a pity not ________ you.
A. invite B. to invite C. inviting D. to have invited
3. I haven’t written to him, for I don’t know ________ the letter.
A. how begin B. to how begin C. how to begin D. how to begin write
4. Everyone here will thank the firefighters for the things they have done to prevent fires ________ the environment safer.
A. make B. to making C. to make D. from making
5. —Hello, Jack, we’re going to see our teacher tomorrow, would you like to go with us?
—Really?
A. I’d like B. I’d love C. I like D. I’d love to.
6. In some teachers’ opinion, the harder a student studies, the more questions he thinks of ________.
A. asking B. being asked C. to ask D. asked
7. Rather than ________ everything to the last minute, she always prefers ________ early.
A. to leave; to start B. leaving; starting C. leave; to start D. being left; to be started
8. At first, no ready technical data were available, but we managed________ without.
A. to go B. go C. going D. did
9. Children are always expecting their parents ________ them some presents on Children’s day.
A. to give B. give C. giving D. gave
10. The Chinese are generally considered________ printing.
A. to invent B. to have invented C. inventing D. to be invented
11. There seemed nothing else for us to do but ________ home on foot.
A. to go B. go C. going D. went
12. His friends and colleagues will be upset, ________ his parents.
A. not to speak of B. not to speak C. to not speak D. not speaking of
13. ________, your plan is very attractive, but it doesn’t seem to be practicable.
A. Telling the truth B. Being told the truth C. Tell the truth D. To tell the truth
14. ________ miss the train, she hurried through her work.
A. In order to not B. So as not to C. In order not to D. as not to
15. It is an honor for me ________ to speak at the meeting.
A. To ask B. asking C. being asked D. to have been asked
[答案与解析]
1. B。不定式的被动语态作状语。表示没有预料到的情况或结果;句意为“晚校后,那焦虑的孩子多次要爬墙,结果每次都被学校门卫逮住。”
2. D。本题考查不定式的否定结构作宾语。动词invite发生在谓语动词thought之前,应用完成时,故答案为D。句意为“舞会很成功,但我认为没邀请你很遗憾。”
3. C。句意为“我还没给他写信,因为我不知道如何开头。” 疑问词+不定式短语,其作用相当于一个名词性从句,常用在某些动词如tell, know, imagine, learn, decided, forget, remember, consider, understand等后面做宾语。
4. C。此题受定式思维的干扰,很容易误选为D. 实际上,本题考查不定式作目的状语。句意为“这里的每个人将因为消防队员预防火灾使环境更安全所做的事情而感激他们,”
5. D。本题考查不定式的省略。为避免重复, 用to来替动词不定式或不定式短语。句意为“杰克,我们明天要去看老师,你一起去吗?”“真的?我想去。”
6. C。本题考查不定式作后置定语,用主动形式表被动意义。句意为“在一些老师看来,学生学习越用功,他想起要问的问题就越多。”
7. C。该题通过调整语序考查非谓语动词在固定结构中的用法。prefer后可接不定式也可接动名词,构成词组prefer doing… to doing…意为“喜欢…而不喜欢”和prefer to do…rather than do…意为“宁愿…而不愿”。句意为“他总是宁愿早点开始,而不愿凡事留到最后时刻”。
8. A。英语中有些动词如want, decide, ask, apply, choose, determine, long, fail, wish, hope, manage, offer, promise, learn, pretend, expect, refuse等只能跟不定式做宾语。句意为“起初,我们没有现成的技术资料,但也设法照样干下去了。”
9. A。不定式作宾语补足语。句意为“儿童节那天孩子们总是盼望着父母能给他们买些礼物。”
10. B。本题考查不定式的时态。不定式的一般时表示的动作通常与谓语的动作或状态同时或几乎同时发生或在它之后发生。不定式的完成式所表示的动作通常在谓语的动作或状态发生之前就已发生或完成。根据句意“通常认为中国人发明的印刷术。”答案为B。
11. B。本题考查but后面跟动词不定式的情况。当but前面有实义动词do时,后面的不定式不带to。故答案为B。句意为“我们好像只能步行回家了。”
12. A。not to speak of为固定词组,意为“更不用说”。句意为“他的朋友和同事都会难过,更不用说他的父母了。”
13. D。to tell the truth 意为“说实话”。句意为“说实话你的计划很吸引人,不过似乎行不通。”
14. C。不定式的否定结构由“not+ 不定式”构成。in order to和so as to为同义词,但so as to只能位于句中,不能位于句首。故答案为 A(注意要将 not 放在不定式符号 to 的前面)。句意为“为了赶火车,她匆匆做完了她的工作。”
15. D。根据句式“It+ be+ 形容词+ for sb. to do sth.”可排除B和C;ask与me的关系是被动的,因此用被动语态。故答案为D。句意为“被邀请在会上发言是我的荣幸。”

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