中考英语动词时态和语态试题的解题思路

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中考英语动词时态和语态试题的解题思路 :动词的时态和语态是初中英语的一个重要语法项目,也是各地中考试题的一个考查热点。综合分析历年全国各地中考试题,中考主要考查一般现在时、一般过去时、现在完成时、现在进行时、一般将来时、过去完成时以及各种时态的被动语态的构成及用法。

【满分技巧】

  1. 判断语态

相对于时态而言,语态更好判断一些。英语中的语态共两种:主动语态和被动语态。多数题型是四个选项中主动语态和被动语态各占一半,如果首先判断出语态,排除了主动语态的选项或含有被动语态的选项,那么该题目的正确率可以达到50%。另外,通过语义表达,学生是不难判断出该句子的主语发出的动作表达的是主动含义还是被动含义。

  1. 看时间状语或标志词

不同的时态对应的时间状语是不同的。一般现在时的时间状语有:表频率的时间状语(频度副词或介词短语);一般过去时的时间状语有:last week; a moment ago; in 1980; yesterday等等表过去的某时间;一般将来时的时间状语有:tomorrow, next year, next week, two days later等等表将来的时间;现在完成时的时间状语有:so far, up to now, for+时间段, since+时间点,over/in the past/last few years/months…等等;过去完成时的时间状语有:before+过去的时间, by+过去的时间等;现在进行时的时间状语有:now, at the moment等;过去进行时的时间状语有:at this time yesterday, at 8:00 this morning等过去某一时间点。记住和不同时态一起搭配的时间状语,有助于我们提高做题的正确率。

  1. 看复合句中的其他句子的谓语动词

比较该动词和要填的动词发生的时间先后,可以判断出要填的谓语动词是发生在现在、将来、过去,还是过去的过去等等。

  1. 固定句型

This/It is/was the first/second…that从句,从句用现在完成时或过去完成时;hardly/rarely/scarcely+过去完成时+when+一般过去时;no sooner+过去完成时+than+一般过去时;While引导的句子用一般时或进行时;when引导的句子用一般时。

  1. 语法归纳

在时间、条件和让步状语从句中用主将从现(主句用将来时,从句用现在时);主情从现(主句出现情态动词,从句用现在时);主祈从现(主句是祈使句,从句用现在时);含有宾语从句的复合句,时态的归纳。主过从必过(主句时态是过去时,从句时态也用过去的某种时态);主现从不限(主句时态是现在时,从句时态没有限制);真理永不变(客观事实和普遍真理宾语从句永远用一般现在时)。

 

1.(北京市西城区2019模拟试题)Our lives _________ a lot since the Internet was invented.

  1. changed B. are changing C. will change D. have changed
  2. (2019年汕头市潮南区初中学业水平模拟)His flight _________ because there was something wrong with the plane. So he had to take the high-speed train from Shenzhen to Xiamen.
  3. was canceled B. canceled C. is canceled D. cancels

3.(山东青岛北区一中2019一模)—How long has he _________ the village school?

—Since he graduate from the university.

  1. gone to B. been to C. taught in D. arrived in
  2. (河北武邑中学2019-2020九年级上学期期中)—Not only his parents but also his sister_________ to the Palace Museum.

—They haven’t been back.

  1. have been         B. have gone          C. has been D. hasgone.
  2. (河北武邑中学2019-2020九年级上学期期中)Mike wants to know if you__________ a picnic tomorrow.

—Yes. But if it__________, we’ll go to the museum instead.

  1. will have; will rain B. have; will rain
    C. will have; rains D. have; is rainy
  2.  (长春外国语学校2019-2020学年第一学期期中)May_________ to the party. She enjoyed herself with us.
  3. invites B. is invited   C. was invited   D. has invited
  4. (北京101中学2019-2020学年第一学期期中)Our team __________ every match since April, but we still have three more games to play.
  5. has won       B. will won       C. win D. won

8.(2019年江苏省连云港市赣榆实验中学中考英语模拟试题)—Excuse me. Who came in just now?

—Sorry, I don’t know. I __________ my e-mail from my friend.

  1. am reading B. was reading C. will read D. have read
  2. (2019北京市西城区九年级模拟测试)-Sam, let’s do the cleaning together.

-Just a minute. I _________ my homework, almost finished.

  1. did B. am doing C. will do D. have done
  2. (2019北京市西城区九年级模拟测试)John, you _________ weight if you do exercise every day.
  3. lose B. lost C. will lose D. have lost

 

1.(2019 •广西百色市)—Your father has gone to Shenzhen on business, hasn’t he?

—Yes.  And he              in two weeks.

  1. will return B. has returned
  2. returned D. returns

2.(2019 •广西百色市)Neither my sister nor I              been to Xi’an before.

  1. have never B. have ever C. has never D. has ever

3.(2019 •湖北省宜昌市)—What great progress Huawei              in recent years!

—No wonder it is widely known in all parts of the world.

  1. is making B. has made C. makes D. made

4.(2019 •湖南长沙)— I can’t find Sarah. Where is she?

— She              for tomorrow’s Xingcheng Cup speaking competition at home.

  1. prepares B. will prepare C. is preparing

5.(2019 •湖南长沙)I              abroad for several years, but I have never regretted my final decision to move back to my motherland.

  1. am living B. lived C. have lived

6.(2019 •四川省眉山市)— Linda has              to Paris. How can I get in touch with her?

— Don’t worry. She will call you as soon as she              there.

  1. been;will get B. been;gets C. gone;will get D. gone;gets

7.(2019 •四川省眉山市)— Your new watch is so nice! When did you buy it?

— In October. I              it for two months.

  1. had B. bought C. have had D. have bought

8.(2019 •湖北省咸宁市)—Let’s go climbing if it              this Saturday.

— Good idea. But nobody knows if it             .

  1. is fine; rains B. is fine; will rain
  2. will be fine; rains D. will be fine; will rain

9.(2019 •襄阳市)— Why won’t we play basketball with Class 4 this afternoon?

— Because they              Longzhong for a study trip.

  1. have gone to B. have been to C. had gone to D. had been to

10.(2019 •湖南省益阳市)Susan and her sister              some photos in the park the day after tomorrow.

  1. take B. took C. will take

 

  1. (2019·吉林省实验中考模拟)I to answer questions in class every day. And obviously, my spoken English takes a big jump.
  2. ask B. asked C. am asked D. was asked
  3. (2019·扬州市梅岭中学中考模拟)—Uncle Sam, I have to leave right now.

—What a pity! I              you could stay a little longer with us.

  1. thought B. think C. am thinking D. have thought
  2. (2019·扬州市梅岭中学中考模拟)Xue Zhiqian’s latest album Animal World, with his posters,  well.
  3. sells B. sell C. is sold D. are sold
  4. (2019·海南海口实验中学中考模拟)—Were you at home at 9:00 pm yesterday?

—Yes, I              for a call from Paris at that time.

  1. waited B. am waiting C. was waiting D. has waited
  2. (2019·四川成都外国语学校中考模拟)—Where are the twins?

—One              flowers and trees in the garden, the other              to help her.

  1. has watered, has gone B. is watering, has been
  2. is watering, has gone D. has watered, has been
  3. (2019·四川成都外国语学校中考模拟)—OMG! How could this happen?

—What?

—The strawberries              for at least a week. They still look so fresh!

  1. have bought B. have been bought C. have kept D. have been kept
  2. (2019·四川成都外国语学校中考模拟)The number of Tik Tok users(抖音用户)  sharply since Tik Tok              in 2016. It’s really popular now.
  3. has risen; appeared B. have been risen; appeared
  4. have raised; was appeared D. has been raised; was appeared
  5. (湖南省长沙市2019届九年级初中学业水平考试模拟)—Did you hear someone knock at the door just now?

—Sorry. I              to my friend on the phone.

  1. was talking    B. talked    C. am talking
  2. (2019·长沙市开福区青竹湖湘一外国语学校中考模拟)—Why didn’t you come to Mary’s birthday party yesterday?

—Because I             .

  1. didn’t invite B. isn’t invited C. wasn’t invited
  2. (2018·湖南长郡中学初三期中)—Tina, I think more attention to your handwriting .

—OK, I will try my best.

  1. should is paid B. should pay C. should be paid

 

跟踪训练

  1. D【解析】句意:自从因特网被发明出来之后,我们的生活已经改变了许多。考查动词时态。A. changed表一般过去时;B. are changing表现在进行时;C. will change表一般将来时;D. have changed表现在完成时。根据句子中的时间状语since the Internet was invented提示可知,此句应用现在完成时,表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响,故答案选D。
  2. A【解析】句意:他的航班被取消了,因为飞机出了问题。所以他不得不坐高铁从深圳去往厦门。
  3. was canceled被取消,一般过去时被动语态;B. canceled取消,一般过去时;C. is canceled被取消,一般现在时被动语态;D. cancels取消,第三人称单数形式。主语为His flight与动词cancel之间为被动的关系,再由was something wrong确定为一般过去时,故选A。
  4. C【解析】句意:——他在乡村学校教书多长时间了?——自从他大学毕业以来。选项A: 已经去了……,选项B: 曾经去过……,选项C:在…教 ,选项D:到达。此句是现在完成时,结合句意动词应该是延续性动词 ,只有选项C是延续性动词,故选C。
  5. D【解析】句意:——不但他的父母而且他的姐姐去了故宫。——他们没有回来。Have / has been to表“去过……”,已经回来;have/has gone to表“去了……”,还没有回到说话现场。根据答句“他们没回来”可知应用have/ has gone to;并且not only……but also……连接主语要遵循就近原则,故该句由my sister决定谓语动词的数,故选D。
  6. C【解析】句意:——迈克想知道你明天是否去野餐。——是的。如果天下雨,我们将去博物馆。第一句是if引导的宾语从句,根据句意的需要选择宾语从句的时态,句中有tomorrow,故用一般将来时;答句为if引导的条件状语从句,遵循主将从现的原则,故选C。
  7. C【解析】句意:May被邀请参加派对。她和我们玩得很开心。根据句意句子应用被动语态,被动语态的基本结构为“be+过去分词”,第二个句子为过去时,故设空处的句子也应为一般过去时,一般过去时的被动语态为“was/ were+过去分词”,主语May为第三人称单数,故选C。
  8. A【解析】句意:从四月份以来,我们队每场比赛都会赢,但是我们还有三场比赛要打。该句的时间状语since April表“从四月份以来”可知句子应用现在完成时,故选A。
  9. B【解析】句意:——对不起。刚才谁进来的?——对不起,我不知道。我正在看我朋友的电子邮件。考查句子时态。A. am reading现在进行时;B. was reading过去进行时;C. will read一般将来时;D. have read现在完成时。根据上文句意(对不起。刚才谁进来的?—-对不起,我不知道。)可知那个人进来时“我正在看我朋友的电子邮件。”根据句意可知此句时态是过去进行时;故选B。
  10. B【解析】句意:——山姆,让我们一起打扫卫生吧。——请等一下。我正在做作业,就快写完了。考查动词时态。A. did表一般过去时;B. am doing表现在进行时;C. will do表一般将来时;D. have done表现在完成时。根据句子中的almost finished提示可知,山姆的作业就快做完了,但还没有做完,动作还在进行中,应用现在进行时,故答案选B。
  11. C【解析】句意:约翰,如果你每天都运动的话你就能减肥了。考查if引导的条件状语从句。A. lose动词原形;B. lost表一般过去时;C. will lose表一般将来时;D. have lost表现在完成时。根据条件状语从句的“主将从现”原则,主句应用一般将来时,故答案选C。

真题再现

  1. A【解析】句意:——你的父亲已经去深圳出差,不是吗?——是的,他打算两周后回来。A为一般将来时;B为现在完成时;C为一般过去时;D为一般现在时。根据in two weeks可知,该题的时态是一般将来时,其结构是:will+动词原形。故选A。
  2. B【解析】句意:我姐姐和我都没去过西安。根据“been to”和 “before”可知本句应用现在完成时(have/has done);其次neither…nor表示两者都不,本身就是否定意义,则可排除never,即排除A、C;当其作主语时,谓语通常遵循“就近一致”原则,即谓语由离其最近的名词或者代词单复数决定,该句中离其最近的主语是I,则应填写have ever。故选B。
  3. B【解析】句意:——华为近年来取得了多么大的进步啊!——难怪它在世界各地广为人知。考查动词时态辨析。in recent years在最近几年,用于现在完成时;Huawei是单数第三人称,助动词需用has;根据句意结构,可知选B。
  4. C【解析】句意:——我找不到萨拉。她在哪里?——她正在家里为明天的星城杯演讲比赛做准备。A. prepares一般现在时;B. will prepare一般将来时;C. is preparing现在进行时。问句是询问萨拉在哪里,是说当前的情况,答语用现在进行时表示她正在做某事,故答案为C。
  5. B【解析】句意:我在国外住了几年,但我从未后悔我搬回祖国的最后决定。A. am living现在进行时;B. lived一般过去时。C. have lived现在完成时。根据语境理解,现在已经回国,那么住在国外就是过去的事情,句子需要用一般过去时来表达,故答案为B。
  6. D【解析】句意:——琳达已经去了巴黎,我怎样能够和她联系?——别担心,她一到那就会给你打电话。第一空处,根据How can I get in touch with her可知,琳达去了巴黎,还没回来,用have gone to,第二空处,根据“主将从现”原则可知可知,as soon as引导的从句用一般现在时,故选D。
  7. C【解析】句意:——你的新手表很漂亮,你什么时候买的?——10月份,我已经买两个月了。A.一般过去时;B.一般过去时;C.现在完成时;D.现在完成时。根据for two months可知,用现在完成时,排除A和B;且buy为瞬间动词,不与一段时间连用,可以转换为延续性动词have,故选C。

【点睛】常见的现在完成时的标志词:in the past few years; for; since; since then; lately; so far;since+过去时间点;for+一段时间等。

  1. B【解析】句意:——如果这个星期六天气好,我们去爬山吧。——好主意。但没人知道会不会下雨。第一个空if引导的是条件状语从句,因此从句用一般现在时表示将来,is fine;第二个空if引导的是宾语从句,根据第一句的时间状语this Saturday可知,要用一般将来时,一般将来时的构成是will+动词原形。故选B。
  2. A【解析】句意:——今天下午我们为什么不和四班一起打篮球?——因为他们去隆中研学旅行去了。考查现在完成时。A. have gone to现在完成时,表示去了某地,可能已到达某地,也可能在去某地的路途中;B. have been to现在完成时,表示去了某地,现在已经回来了;C. had gone to过去完成时,表示去了某地,说话时人不在这里;D. had been to过去完成时,表示去了某地,说话时人已经回来了。本题根据语境可知四班去隆中的动作发生在过去,对现在造成了影响和结果,所以应用现在完成时,排除C、D选项;再根据句意可知应用have gone to结构,排除B选项;故答案选A。
  3. C【解析】考查动词时态辨析。句意:苏珊和她的姐姐后天要在公园里拍一些照片。A. take是一般现在时态;B. took是一般过去时态;C. will take是一般将来时态。根据时间状语the day after tomorrow后天可知,用一般将来时态,故选C。

模拟检测

  1. C【解析】句意:我每天在课堂上都被叫起来回答问题。很明显,我的英语口语发生了很大的飞跃。A. ask问,一般现在时;B. asked问,一般过去时;C. am asked被问,一般现在时的被动;D. was asked被问,一般过去时的被动。本题考查动词词组ask sb to do sth让某人做某事。根据every day,可知,经常发生的动作,用一般现在时,排除B和D。再根据主语I 是被叫起来回答问题,用被动语态,故选C。
  2. A【解析】句意:——山姆叔叔,我得走了。——真遗憾!我以为你可以和我们多待一会儿。考查动词时态辨析。本句是宾语从句,从句you could stay a little longer是一般过去时,主句需用一般过去时;根据句意语境,可知选A。
  3. A【解析】句意:薛之谦的最新专辑《动物世界》连同他的海报卖得很好。考查主谓一致。sell卖,主语一般是人,但是在表示某物卖得不错时,要用主动语态表示被动意义。主语album(专辑)是单数第三人称,动词需用三单形式;根据句意语境,可知选A。
  4. C【解析】句意:——昨天下午九点你在家吗?——是的,在那个时候我在等一个来自巴黎的电话。A. waited等待,一般过去时态;B. am waiting正在等,现在进行时;C. was waiting正在等,过去进行时;D. has waited已经等了,现在完成时。根据时间状语at that time.可知用过去进行时,其结构是was/were doing的形式。根据题意,故选C。
  5. C【解析】本考查时态用法。选项分析:Where are the twins?问的是此时双胞胎在干嘛?一个正在花园里浇花和树用正在进行时。另一个the other ,已经去帮助她了,用has gone to help her,说明动作的完成,并持续的影响。综合分析前后句, 可知此处填 is watering, has gone最合适,完整句意为:—Where are the twins?那对双胞胎在哪儿?—One is watering flowers and trees in the garden, the other has gone to help her.一个正在花园里浇花和树,另一个去帮她了。正确答案为C。
  6. B【解析】考查现在完成时的被动语态。选项分析:The strawberries 与buy之间有逻辑上的被动关系,故用被动语态,而根据for at least a week.可知用现在完成时。综合分析前后句, 可知此处填 have been bought最合适,完整句意为:—OMG!——天啊!How could this happen?怎么会这样呢?—What?什么?——The strawberries have been bought for at least a week.草莓已经买了至少一个星期了。They still look so fresh!它们看起来还是那么新鲜!正确答案为B。
  7. A【解析】考查时态辨析。选项分析:since引导的时间状语从句,主句用现在完成时表示动作已发生后的影响。从句用过去时描述过去发生的动作。综合分析前后句, 可知此处填 has risen; appeared最合适,完整句意为:The number of Tik Tok users has risen sharply since Tik Tok appeared in 2016.自2016年抖音出现以来,抖音的用户数量急剧上升。It’s really popular now.现在很流行。正确答案为A。
  8. A【解析】句意:——你刚才听到有人敲门了吗?——对不起。我正通过电话和我的朋友聊天呢。A. was talking过去进行时;B. talked 一般过去时;C. am talking现在进行时。根据语境是“有人敲门”的那个时候,我正通过电话和我的朋友聊天;可知用过去进行时,选A。
  9. C【解析】句意:——你昨天为什么没去玛丽的生日派对?——因为我没有被邀请。A.一般过去时;B.一般现在时的被动语态;C.一般过去时的被动语态。根据yesterday可知,用一般过去时,排除B;且主语I与谓语invite之间为被动be done,故选C。
  10. C【解析】句意:——缇娜,我认为应该更注意你的书写。——好的,我会尽我的最大努力。根据more attention和pay之间是被动关系,用被动语态,排除B;根据should后用动词原形;故选C。
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