农村婴儿比城市婴儿更易怒

2021年1月15日
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Study: Rural Babies Fussier, Angrier Than Infants Raised In Cities

农村婴儿比城市婴儿更易怒

农村婴儿比城市婴儿更易怒

No matter where you live, babies are still a handful. Everything is new and exciting during our days in the crib, and parents from all demographics and regions will tell you caring for a newborn is a full-time job. That being said, a new study conducted at Washington State University finds that rural babies and urban babies tend to act differently.

无论你住在哪里,婴儿都是一个棘手的问题。来自各个地区的父母会告诉你,照顾婴儿确实是一项全职工作。而华盛顿州立大学的一项新研究发现,农村婴儿和城市婴儿的行为往往不同。

Rather surprisingly, the research team found that rural babies display negative emotions like anger or frustration much more often than city-living babies. Conversely, urban babies are usually calmer, less fussy, and not as bothered by rules.

令人惊讶的是,研究小组发现农村婴儿比城市婴儿更容易表现出愤怒或沮丧等负面情绪。相反,城市婴儿通常更冷静,不那么挑剔,也不那么受规则的困扰。

The study set out to examine differences in infant temperament, parent-child interactions, and parental stress between families living in the San Francisco Bay Area and the Inland Northwest. All analyzed families came from similar socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, in order to cut back on variables.

这项研究旨在调查旧金山湾区和加州西北内陆的家庭在婴儿气质、亲子互动和父母压力方面的差异。为了减少变量,所有被分析的家庭都有着相似的社会经济和种族背景。

It was also noted that urban moms seem to be better at recognizing when their babies need or want something, as well as when the child is tired of a particular activity. So, this may have a direct influence on why urban babies are calmer; they’re moms are quicker to meet their needs. Rural moms on the other hand reported more instances of their babies acting angrily.

研究还指出,城市妈妈似乎更善于识别孩子什么时候需要什么,以及孩子何时厌倦了某项活动。所以,这也许可以解释为什么城市婴儿更冷静,因为他们的母亲能更迅速地满足他们的需求。另一方面,农村妈妈则报告了更多其孩子生气的例子。总的来说,这些结果与此前关于城乡家庭养育方式差异的研究结果一致。不过,这是第一个专门针对婴儿的研究。

Generally speaking, these results are inline with prior research findings regarding parenting differences in urban and rural families. However, this is the first study to focus specifically on newborns and infants and compare rural and urban environments’ effects on behaviors.

华盛顿州立大学心理学家兼研究报告作者玛丽亚·加特斯坦表示:“坦率地说,我很震惊,关于农村和城市环境对抚养婴儿的影响的文献是如此之少。在我们的研究中,农村母亲报告她们的婴儿更频繁地表达愤怒和沮丧,这可能会对这些孩子的人生产生影响,因为婴儿期更高程度的沮丧会增加日后出现注意力问题、情绪问题、社交问题以及行为问题的风险。”。

“I was shocked, quite frankly, at how little there was in the literature on the effects of raising an infant in a rural vs. urban environment,” Washington State University psychologist & study author Maria Gartstein says in a release. “The fact that rural mothers in our study reported more frequent expressions of anger and frustration from their infants may be consequential as higher levels of frustration in infancy can increase risk for later attentional, emotional, social and behavioral problems.”

接下来,加特斯坦和她的团队想要找出究竟是什么导致了城市生活和农村生活对婴儿影响的差异。她解释道:“例如,在更偏远的社区,获得心理健康服务以及儿童抚养资源的机会往往是有限的。弄清楚这些以及其它位置变量在婴儿社交情绪发展中的作用将是我们研究的下一步。”。

Moving forward Gartstein and her team would like to pinpoint exactly what it is about urban living versus rural living that promotes these differences.

“For example, access to mental and behavioral health services and child rearing resources tend to be limited in more rurally situated communities,” she explains. “Figuring out what role, if any, these and other locational variables play in an infant’s social emotional development will be the next step in our research.”

To come to their conclusions, the researchers analyzed and compared datasets that had been gathered by two previous studies. Both of those studies had investigated mother-child interactions and subsequent infant behaviors.

为了得出他们的结论,研究人员分析并比较了之前两项研究收集的数据集。第一项研究包括来自旧金山湾区的68个家庭,第二项研究包括来自西北内陆偏远乡村惠特曼郡和莱托郡的120个家庭。在这两个项目中,母亲们填写了191份调查问卷,记录了她们的孩子在出生6个月和12个月后表现出的191种不同行为的频率,然后研究人员根据14个不同的类别对这些行为进行分析。

The first study included 68 participating families from the Bay Area, and the second was comprised of 120 families hailing from the much more rural Whitman and Latah counties in the Inland Northwest. Across both projects, mothers filled out questionnaires that recorded the frequency of 191 varying behaviors their child may have exhibited at both six and 12 months after being born. The babies were then analyzed on the basis of 14 different categories (cuddliness, vocals). Additionally, mother-child playtime activities were recorded in a lab setting.

Another interesting finding: there were no observed differences in parental stress levels between urban and rural families.

“This may be a result of different, but functionally equivalent, risk factors,” Gartstein concludes. “Whereas living in a big city generally brings more exposure or proximity to violent crime, isolation can also cause a great deal of stress for rural parents. This research opens up a lot of very interesting future avenues of investigation.”

The study is published in the Journal of Community Psychology.

另一个有趣的发现是:在城市和农村家庭之间没有观察到父母压力水平的差异。加特斯坦总结道:“这可能是类型不同但功能等同的风险因素造成的结果。尽管生活在大城市通常更容易接触暴力犯罪导致压力增大,但与世隔绝也会给农村父母带来巨大的压力。”。

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