山火刚灭又遭暴雨,澳州气候灾难恐成常态

2021年1月15日
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在澳大利亚,连烧数月的熊熊山火刚刚平息,下一场灾难又接踵而至——暴雨连绵,洪水泛滥。气候灾难变成恶性循环,相互触发,甚至可能成为趋势。面对一连串的自然灾害,“水深火热”之中的澳洲民众还面临哪些困难?澳大利亚的危机又为何如此严重?

The Fires Are Out, but Australia’s Climate Disasters Aren’t Over

大火终灭,但澳大利亚的气候灾难尚未结束

山火刚灭又遭暴雨,澳州气候灾难恐成常态

Australia’s hellish fire season has eased, but its people are facing more than a single crisis. With floods destroying homes not far from where infernos recently raged, they are confronting a cycle of what scientists call “compound extremes”: one climate disaster intensifying the next.

澳大利亚炼狱般的火灾高发季终于有所缓解,但当地人面临的却不止一场危机。洪水冲毁了房屋,而不远处正是最近大火肆虐的地方。澳大利亚人正面临被科学家称为“复合极端情况”的循环,即一场气候灾难在加剧酝酿着下一场。

Warmer temperatures do more than just dry out the land. They also heat up the atmosphere, which means clouds hold more moisture for longer periods of time. So droughts get worse, giving way to fires, then to crushing rains that the land is too dry to absorb.

温度升高不仅会使土地干燥,还会让大气升温,这意味着云层锁水量更大、时间更长。接下来,干旱状况加剧,火灾趁虚而入,继而暴雨泛滥之时,土地因为过于干燥而无法吸收雨水。

One result of that multiplier effect for Australia — a global bellwether for climate change’s effects — is that rebuilding after a disaster becomes far more complicated. Many Australians in disaster zones complain that their government, after dismissing climate change for years, has yet to outline recovery plans that are clear and that take future threats into account.

澳大利亚作为全球气候变化影响的风向标,这一“乘数效应”给它带来的一个后果便是灾后重建变得复杂许多。许多身处灾区的澳大利亚人抱怨说,政府多年来对气候变化不屑一顾,至今仍未制定出明确的、考虑到针对未来威胁的复苏计划。

At the same time, the economic costs of a changing climate are skyrocketing. Philip Lowe, the governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia, warned recently that Australia was already paying a price, and that it would only go up.

与此同时,气候变化的经济成本正在飞涨。澳大利亚央行行长菲利普•洛最近警告称,澳大利亚已经在付出代价,而且这个代价会越来越大。

“It’s not a question of if we’re going to have another disaster,” said Lucinda Fischer, 32, “It’s when, and how we’re going to deal with it then.”

32岁的露辛达·菲舍尔说:“这不是会不会再次发生灾难的问题,而是什么时候以及到时我们该如何应对的问题。”

生词好句

1.out UK /aʊt/ US /aʊt/ adj. 熄灭的(通常是光或者火的熄灭)
2.hellish UK /ˈhelɪʃ/ US /ˈhelɪʃ/ adj. 糟透的,极坏的 a hellish experience 一次很糟糕的经历
hell n. 地狱
3.fire season 火灾高发季 rainy season 雨季
flooding season 洪水季
4.ease UK /iːz/ US /iːz/ vt. 减轻,缓和
5.inferno UK /ɪnˈfɜːnəʊ/ US /ɪnˈfɜːrnoʊ/ n. 地狱般的大火 a blazing/raging inferno 熊熊火海
6.rage UK /reɪdʒ/ US /reɪdʒ/ vi. 猛烈地进行,迅速蔓延(既可形容火势,也可形容疾病) The new coronavirus is raging through the world.
新型肺炎正快速地向全世界扩散。
be all the rage 迅速流行
Greg became all the rage after starring in the TV drama ‘Someday Or One Day’.
在出演了《想见你》之后,许光汉迅速走红。
7.compound extremes 复合极端情况 compound adj. 混合的,复合的
compound n. 混合物
compound interest 复利
extreme n. 极度;极端
8.intensify UK /ɪnˈtensɪfaɪ/ US /ɪnˈtensəfaɪ/ vt. 加强,加剧(程度/力量上的加强) intense adj. 激烈的
9.dry out (使)变干,干透(既可指土壤变干,也可指皮肤变干) Cold winds can soon dry out your skin.
冷风会很快让你的皮肤失去水分。
10.heat up 变热;变暖 heat up the food 加热食物
11.moisture UK /ˈmɔɪstʃə/ US /ˈmɔɪstʃər/ n. 水分,潮气
12.give way to 被……替代,给……让步、妥协 give way to one’s parents 向父母妥协
The storm gave way to bright sunshine.
暴风雨被灿烂的阳光取代了。/暴风雨过后阳光灿烂。
13.crushing UK /ˈkrʌʃɪŋ/ US /ˈkrʌʃɪŋ/ adj. 惨重的,毁坏性的 crushing rains 大暴雨
14.multiplier UK /ˈmʌltiplaɪər/ US /ˈmʌltiplaɪər/ n. 乘数,倍数 multiply v. 乘
multiplier effect 乘数效应
乘数效应指经济活动中某一变量的增减所引起的经济总量变化的连锁反应程度。简单说来,就是指一件事情带来的影响并不仅仅是最直接的那个结果,还会像蝴蝶效应一样,引发一系列连锁反应所造成的影响。
15.bellwether UK /ˈbelˌweðə/ US /ˈbelˌweðər/ n. 先兆,风向标 The Golden Globe Awards are known as a bellwether for the Academy Awards.
金球奖被认为是奥斯卡的风向标。
16.dismiss UK /dɪˈsmɪs/ US /dɪˈsmɪs/ vt. 对……不予理会,否定
17.outline UK /ˈaʊtlaɪn/ US /ˈaʊtlaɪn/ vt. 概述,概括 outline an idea/a plan 概括一个计划/一个想法
18.take sth. into account 考虑到
19.skyrocket UK /ˈskaɪˌrɒkɪt/ US /ˈskaɪˌrɑːkɪt/ vi. 急升,激增(surge)
20.It’s not a question of…, but… 这不是……的问题,而是…… It’s not a question of what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.
不要问国家能为你做什么,而要问你能为国家做什么。
(肯尼迪原句:“Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.”)

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