防疫策略:社群隔离

2021年1月15日
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What Is Social Distancing and How Do We Do It Right?

防疫策略:社群隔离

防疫策略:社群隔离

It’s a phrase that’s new to most of us, but not to the world of public health: social distancing.

“社群隔离”(social distancing)是公共卫生领域的常见词语。但普罗大众对它可能并不熟悉。

But what does exactly social distancing mean and how do we put it into practice?

它的具体含义是什么,又该如何实际操作呢?

Simply put, social distancing is a community strategy used by public health officials to put space between individuals in an attempt to limit the spread of a virus or a highly contagious infectious disease like COVID-19, Ebola or SARS. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) defines social distancing as “remaining out of congregate settings, avoiding mass gatherings and maintaining distance (approximately 6 feet or 2 meters) from others when possible.”

简单地说,社群隔离是公共卫生官员为控制如新冠,埃博拉和SARS等高度传染性病毒或疾病的传播所采取的,将个体隔离的社群策略。美国疾控中心(CDC)给社群隔离的定义为“远离人群聚集的场所,避免大型集会,尽可能的与他人保持距离(约6英尺/2米)”。

许多通过飞沫传播的病毒(包括新冠)都能够在喷嚏或咳嗽发生后停留在空气中几个小时。因此保持人与人之间的距离是关键。在开发出广泛可用的疫苗或药品前,控制人群流动对于疫情控制至关重要。

Because many viruses (including coronavirus) are spread through droplets that can remain in the air for hours after someone sneezes or coughs, creating space between individuals is critical. Community mitigation strategies are especially important before a vaccine or drug is widely available to prevent these viruses from spreading.

因为一旦势头开始,就很难阻止。所以当病毒尚未爆发时,社群隔离是常用的应对手段。就像消防员清理大片灌木丛形成防火带来控制野外的火势蔓延一样。

Social distancing is typically used in communities where an outbreak of a virus (like COVID-19) has not yet occurred because it is difficult to stop once it has started. Think of it like when firefighters clear large swaths of brush to create a firebreak to stop wildfires from spreading out of control.

社群隔离的目标是为了“压平曲线”,减少疫情爆发高峰期的病例数,减轻已经不堪重负的医疗系统的压力。

Examples of social distancing include:

常见社群隔离措施有:

1、closing or suspending schools and moving to online or distance learning

学校停课或延缓课程,转为线上教学

2、canceling public events such as conferences, weekly meetings or houses of worship

取消大型会议,周会和礼拜等公共活动

3、implementing telecommute practices for businesses where practical

如果可行,实施线上办公

4、closing child care centers

关闭托幼中心

5、suspending or canceling sporting events, concerts or festivals

延后或取消体育赛事,音乐会或节日活动

Mass transit may also be affected. The important thing to note is that if your children are out of school, it’s not time to set up playdates with the neighborhood kids or a visit to the local public library (if it’s even open). Contact with people outside your home should be limited. The same goes for adults working from home. It’s not time to set up shop in the local coffee shop.

公共交通也可能受到影响。要注意,孩子不去学校,不代表就应该和邻居的小伙伴玩耍或去公共图书馆(如果还开放的话)看书。要控制和家庭外部人员的接触。在家办公的大人也是一样的。这可不是本地咖啡店营业的好时候。

When implemented correctly, social distancing can have the desired effect on spreading a virus — it’s been proven in the past (see sidebar below) — but only when people take it seriously.

以往的经验证明,如果正确实施,社群隔离措施确实能够对控制病毒传播起到预期效果。前提是人们能够认真对待。

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