为什么菲律宾是唯一一个离婚违法的国家?

2021年1月15日
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除梵蒂冈以外,菲律宾是世界上唯一一个法律禁止离婚的国家。早在 1999 年,菲律宾人就已开始尝试推动离婚合法化,但其后上交至国会的数个离婚法案均未通过审议。2018 年,新的离婚法案又一次交由菲律宾国会两院审议。这一法案已被众议院通过,但仍旧受到参议院的反对。为何菲律宾推动离婚合法化的进程如此艰难?

为什么菲律宾是唯一一个离婚违法的国家?

Why the Philippines is the only country where divorce is illegal

为什么菲律宾是唯一一个离婚违法的国家

Even by the standards of former Spanish colonies, the Philippines has extremely socially conservative laws. It is the only country in world, bar the Vatican City, to outlaw divorce (except for Muslims).

即使按照前西班牙殖民地的标准来衡量,菲律宾当今的法规也体现着极端的社会保守主义。除梵蒂冈以外,它是世界上唯一一个法律禁止离婚的国家(仅允许穆斯林离婚)。

Filipinos seem less conservative than the laws that govern them. More than half think divorce should be legal, according to surveys conducted in 2017 by Social Weather Stations (SWS), a pollster.

相比起约束着他们的法规,菲律宾人似乎没那么保守。菲律宾民意调查机构“社会气象站”(SWS)2017 年开展的调查显示,超过半数的菲律宾人认为离婚应该合法化。

So why are Filipinos’ views so poorly represented in national legislation? The explanation lies in an unfortunate mix of politics and faith. About three-quarters of Filipinos consider religion “very important”, SWS found in 2018. A study the same year suggests that almost four in ten voters are likely to cast their ballots for a candidate endorsed by their church or religious movement.

那么,为何菲律宾公众的意见在国家立法中没有得到很好的体现?其原因就在于,在菲律宾,政治与宗教信仰可悲地结合在了一起。SWS 在 2018 年调查发现,约有四分之三的菲律宾人认为宗教信仰“非常重要”。同年开展的另一项研究表明,几乎有 40%的选民会将选票投给自己在的教会或参与的宗教运动所支持的候选人。

In recent years the clout of the Catholic church has diminished somewhat. But Catholics’ declining influence over politics has been offset by the growing importance of various Protestant sects. Although only about 10% of Filipinos, or roughly 10m people, describe themselves as Protestants or evangelicals, their relative fervour makes them a political lobby to be reckoned with. They tend to espouse a literal interpretation of the Bible and so are fiercely opposed to divorce, same-sex marriage and abortion, says Jayeel Serrano Cornelio of Ateneo de Manila University.

近年来,天主教会的势力已有所衰退。不过,各新教教派与日俱增的重要性,已经弥补了天主教教徒失去的政治影响力。虽然只有 10%左右的菲律宾人(约 1 千万人)自称新教徒或福音派教徒;但相较之下,这些信众的狂热让他们成为了不容小觑的政治游说团体。来自马尼拉雅典耀大学的杰伊尔·塞拉诺·科内利奥指出,这些新教徒倾向于拥护对《圣经》的字面解释,也因此强烈反对离婚、同性婚姻以及堕胎。

Fierce religious opposition helped to delay by 13 years the passage of the law allowing the government to distribute contraceptives.*** The ongoing battle bodes ill for the bill to legalise divorce that is currently under consideration in Congress.

宗教团体的激烈反对,使得一条允许政府发放避孕药具的法规推迟了 13 年才得以通过。目前,离婚合法化法案正交由国会审议;而仍在持续的政教斗争表明,这项法案的前景不容乐观。

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