本年度数学终身成就奖—阿贝尔奖颁给了两位概率论专家

2021年1月15日
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Prestigious Abel Maths Prize Has Been Awarded For ‘Random Walk’ Probability Techniques

本年度数学终身成就奖—阿贝尔奖颁给了两位概率论专家

本年度数学终身成就奖—阿贝尔奖颁给了两位概率论专家

The Abel Prize for mathematics was on Wednesday awarded to Israeli-American Hillel Furstenberg and Russian-born Gregory Margulis, both probability experts, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters said.

本周三,挪威科学与文学院宣布,今年的阿贝尔数学奖被颁发给以色列裔美国人希勒尔·弗斯滕伯格和出生于俄罗斯的格里高利·马古利斯,两位概率论专家。

The pair were honoured “for pioneering the use of methods from probability and dynamics in group theory, number theory and combinatorics,” the Academy said in a statement.

学院在声明中指出,表彰两人“在群论、数论和组合论中率先运用概率和动力学方法”。

Furstenberg, 84, is affiliated with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, while Margulis, a decade younger, is at Yale University.

现年84岁的弗斯滕伯格来自耶路撒冷希伯来大学,而十岁以下的Margulis就读于耶鲁大学。

Furstenberg and Margulis invented so-called random walk techniques, or a path consisting of a succession of random steps. The study of random walks is a central branch of probability theory.

他们二人发明了所谓的随机游走技术——随机游走本身是概率论的核心主题之一。

The pair used the technique “to investigate mathematical objects such as groups and graphs, and in so doing introduced probabilistic methods to solve many open problems,” the statement said.

他们在“诸如群和图之类的数学对象上引入随机游走过程,用概率方法解决了许多开放性问题”。

Their work “has opened up a wealth of new results” in diverse areas of mathematics and “brought down the traditional wall between pure and applied mathematics”.

他们的工作“打通了数学各分支”,“打破了纯数学和应用数学之间的传统壁垒”。

Born in Berlin, Furstenberg and his Jewish family fled Nazi Germany for the US just before the start of World War II.

犹太人弗斯滕伯格出生于柏林,就在第二次世界大战爆发前逃离纳粹德国前往美国。

After starting his career at top universities like Princeton and MIT, he left the United States for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1965 and stayed there until his retirement in 2003.

在普林斯顿大学和麻省理工学院等顶尖大学开始了职业生涯后,他又于1965年离开美国前往耶路撒冷希伯来大学,并一直呆到2003年退休。

Margulis stood out as a math wiz early on. At age 16, he won the silver medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad, and 16 years later won the prestigious Fields Medal.

马古利斯很早就成为了数学界的骄子。16岁那年,他在国际数学奥林匹克竞赛上获得了银牌,16年后,他又获得了久负盛名的菲尔兹奖章。

The Soviet authorities however did not allow him to travel to Helsinki to pick up the medal because of discrimination against his Jewish origin. Soviet academics were finally granted more freedom in 1979.

但是,出于对犹太人的歧视,苏联当局不允许他前往赫尔辛基领奖。苏联学者最终在1979年奔向自由。

He went on to work at universities in Switzerland, France and the US, where he became a professor at Yale in 1991. In 2001, he was elected a member of the US National Academy of Sciences.

他继续在瑞士,法国和美国的大学工作,1991年成为耶鲁大学的教授。2001年,他当选为美国国家科学院院士。

Because of the novel coronavirus pandemic, the Abel Prize award ceremony has been postponed indefinitely. It was originally scheduled for May 19.

由于新冠病毒大流行,原定于5月19日举行的颁奖典礼被无限期推迟。

Named after the 19th-century Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel, the prize was established by the Oslo government in 2002 and first awarded a year later, to honour outstanding scientific work in the field of mathematics, a discipline not included among the Nobel awards.

阿贝尔数学奖以19世纪挪威数学家尼尔斯·亨里克·阿贝尔(Niels Henrik Abel)的名字命名,由奥斯陆政府于2002年设立,并于一年后首次颁发,以表彰数学领域的杰出代表。

This year it comes with a cheque for 7.5 million kroner (US$711,000 or 648,000 euros).

它与国际数学联盟(IMU)大会每四年颁发一次的菲尔兹奖一起,是世界上最负盛名的数学奖之一。

Along with the Fields Medal, which is awarded every four years at the Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), it is one of the world’s most prestigious maths prizes.

某种意义上,它就是数学界的终身成就奖。同时,奖金额度可以媲美诺贝尔奖,弥补了菲尔兹奖在物质奖励上的不足。今年,奖章会附带一张价值750万瑞典克朗的支票(约合711000美元)。

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