常怀感恩之心对抑郁可能没有帮助

2021年1月15日
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That Gratitude Journal Might Not Be The Best Depression Treatment, Study Shows

常怀感恩之心对抑郁可能没有帮助

常怀感恩之心对抑郁可能没有帮助

Working through an exercise in gratitude or counting your blessings can often have positive health benefits and lift our mood – but it isn’t actually much help when it comes to properly dealing with symptoms of depression and anxiety, new research has found.

Weighing up the evidence from 27 previous studies, covering 3,675 individuals in total, researchers observed only a “small effect” on depression and anxiety, suggesting better options are available when it comes to treating these conditions.

新的研究发现,做感恩练习往往会对健康产生积极的益处,并提升我们的情绪。但是,当涉及到正确处理抑郁和焦虑的症状时,这实际上并没有多大帮助。综合27项研究,研究人员观察到这一方法对抑郁和焦虑只有一些小影响,这表明在治疗这些情况时有更好的选择。

And while a grateful attitude can often have knock-on effects that are very welcome, the team behind the new meta-study is asking for caution in treating gratitude ‘interventions’ as a viable form of treatment.

虽然感恩的态度通常会产生非常受欢迎的连锁反应,但是进行这项新研究的团队认为:应该谨慎对待将感恩干预作为一种可行的治疗方式。

“For years now, we have heard in the media and elsewhere about how finding ways to increase gratitude can help make us happier and healthier in so many ways,” says psychologist David Cregg, from Ohio State University.

俄亥俄州立大学的心理学家大卫·克雷格说道:“多年来,我们一直在媒体上听说,多怀揣感恩之心可以在很多方面帮助我们变得更快乐、更健康。但是,这种做法并无法帮助缓解焦虑和抑郁症状。”。

“But when it comes to one supposed benefit of these interventions – helping with symptoms of anxiety and depression – they really seem to have limited value.”

Two of the most common exercises in focusing on gratitude are keeping a journal of three things that went well every day, and writing a letter expressing gratitude to someone who’s made a difference in your life.

But when compared with exercises unrelated to gratitude – like writing about a class schedule – these steps don’t seem to have much of an impact in terms of relieving anxiety or depression.

In other words, telling people who show symptoms of being anxious or depressed to be more grateful for the good things in their lives may not be all that effective.

“There was a difference, but it was a small difference,” says psychologist Jennifer Cheavens, from Ohio State University. “It would not be something you would recommend as a treatment.”

The researchers point to other options like cognitive behavioural therapy as being better for tackling anxiety and depression in the long run.

感恩练习中的两个最常见的练习是每天记录三件进展顺利的事情,以及写一封信表达对改变你生活的人的感激之情。但是,与无关感恩的练习相比,这些步骤在减轻焦虑或抑郁方面似乎没有多大作用。换句话说,让那些表现出焦虑或抑郁症状的人们对他们生活中的美好事物更加感激,可能并不是那么有效。来自俄亥俄州立大学的心理学家詹妮弗·切文思说道:“虽然两种方式有所不同,但其实区别不大,所以不能把感恩练习作为一种治疗手段来推荐。”

That’s not to say trying to concentrate on the positives is a waste of time. Exercises in gratitude have been shown to have benefits in terms of improving relationships and in getting people to exercise more, for example.

But for treating anxiety and depression, not so much. Previous studies may have suffered to varying degrees from problems with assessment methods, risk of bias, control groups measurements and the placebo effect, the researchers note.

That said, this isn’t yet the final word on the subject: this new research only involved two clinical samples, and only five studies that included an analysis of anxiety. What’s more, it focused on gratitude interventions – specific exercises – rather than the effects of a more grateful attitude in general.

研究人员指出,从长远来看,认知行为疗法等其它选择对解决焦虑和抑郁症更有效。这并不是说,试图把注意力集中在感恩上是浪费时间。例如,感恩练习已经被证明在改善人际关系方面有好处。但对于治疗焦虑和抑郁症,就不那么有效了。研究人员指出,此前的研究可能在不同程度上受到评估方法、偏倚风险、对照组测量和安慰剂效应等问题的影响。

“Based on our results, telling people who are feeling depressed and anxious to be more grateful likely won’t result in the kind of reductions in depression and anxiety we would want to see,” says Cheavens.

“It might be that these sort of interventions, on their own, aren’t powerful enough or that people have difficulty enacting them fully when they are feeling depressed and anxious.”

切文思说道:“我们的研究结果表明,告诉那些感到沮丧和焦虑的人们更加感激,可能不会带来我们希望看到的抑郁和焦虑的减少。可能是因为这些干预措施本身不够有效,抑或是因为当人们感到沮丧和焦虑时,难以充分实施这些干预措施。”

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