疫情在欧洲:哪些国家受冲击更大?

2021年1月15日
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Some Countries Are Better Armored for Epidemics Than Others

抗疫“大考”:各国成绩参差不齐

疫情在欧洲:哪些国家受冲击更大?

No European country is escaping the economic consequences of the coronavirus, but the pain won’t be divided equally.

没有哪个欧洲国家能逃脱新冠病毒对经济造成的影响,但冲击带来的伤害并不会平均分配。

Southern Europe, which bore the brunt of the last big economic crisis, will suffer the most. Countries like Greece and Italy depend heavily on tourism and are still suffering the lingering effects of the eurozone debt meltdown over the last decade, including austerity programs that left their health care systems ill prepared for a pandemic.

南欧在上一次重大经济危机中首当其冲,这次又将受到最大冲击。希腊和意大利等极度依赖旅游业的国家,尚未从过去十年欧元区债务危机挥之不去的阴影中走出,其中,财政紧缩政策让这些国家的医疗保健系统无力应对大规模流行病。

But even countries regarded as paragons of competitiveness, like Germany and the Netherlands, may turn out to have weaknesses that, until a few weeks ago, were regarded as strengths.

但是,即便是像德国和荷兰这样被公认为极具竞争力的典范国家,也可能暴露出弱点,而就在几周前,这些弱点还被视为优势。

Germany’s automakers, for example, have dominated the luxury car business. But the virus exposed their dependence on sales in China, and now they are closing factories all over the region.

例如,德国的汽车制造商向来主导着豪华车业务,但新冠病毒暴露出了他们对中国市场的销量依赖,如今中国区的汽车工厂纷纷关停。

Other countries may have hidden strengths. An economy with lots of companies that can deliver their services digitally, and where employees can work from home, should be relatively resilient. This could be Estonia’s moment; its capital, Tallinn, has a lively digital start-up scene.

其它一些国家则可能具有潜在优势。一个经济体中,如果有大量公司能够满足线上服务,并且员工可以在家远程办公,那么这个经济体相对而言适应性更强。目前的爱沙尼亚或许就是这样,其首都塔林活跃着众多互联网初创公司。

The most important economic policy for any country, economists at Oxford Economics point out, is to get the virus under control. That gives the advantage to countries with effective leaders and well-equipped health care systems.

牛津经济研究院的经济学家指出,对任何国家来说,目前的首要经济措施都是控制住疫情。在这一点上,那些领导力高效、医疗卫生体系健全的国家具有优势。

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