图片[1]-定语从句和同位语从句的区别有哪些?-小e英语课堂-英语翻译_ 英语语法基础知识大全_英语手抄报_英语作文

定语从句和同位语从句的区别有哪些?

答:

1.根据that在从句中是否作成分来判定

that在定语从句中担任句子成分,而在同位语从句中不作成分。

The news (that) you told me last week is not true.你上周告诉我的消息不是真的。

(that引导的定语从句,说明是哪一个news,that在从句中担任told的宾语。)

The news that the leader will come here is not true.领导将要来这儿的消息不是真的。

(that引导的同位语从句,说明news的具体内容,that在从句中不担任任何成分。)

2.根据意思来判断

在引导词前加is后,如果句子成立就是同位语从句,否则就不是,还是以上面两个例句为例。

The news that you told me last week is not true.

→(误)The news is that you told me last week.你上周告诉我的消息不是真的。

(因为the news不能等于you told me last week,所以句子不成立,不是同位语从句,而是定语从句。)

The news that the leader will come here is not true.

→(正)The news is that the leader will come here.领导将要来这儿的消息不是真的。

(句子成立,所以是同位语从句。)

3.根据that前的名词判断

同位语从句中that前的名词必须是表示事实的抽象名词,如fact,news,information,order,belief,reply,answer,saying等,而定语从句前的先行词没有这个限制,但这一点不是决定因素,主要还要依前面所述的两点来判断。

 

 

Common Mistakes(注意!失分陷阱!)

陷阱例题①

Gun control is a subject __________ Americans have argued for a long time.【陕西高考】

A.of which                                  B.with which

C.about which                               D.into which

句意提示:枪支控制是美国人争论了很长时间的一个话题。

陷阱追击:argue(with sb.) about/over sth.意为“就……(与某人)争论/争辩”。先行词是a subject,意为“话题”,指物,关系词在从句中作介词的宾语,介词前置,介词与从句谓语动词构成搭配argue about sth.。本题易误选B。

正确解析:此题考查“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句。先行词为subject,代入定语从句后为:Americans have argued about the subject for a long time.由此可知,先行词在定语从句中作about的宾语,介词about提前,故用关系代词which,正确答案为C。

陷阱例题②

Whenever I met her,__________ was fairly often,she greeted me with a sweet smile.【山东高考】

A.who                                       B.which

C.when                                      D.that

句意提示:不管我何时遇见她,她都用甜甜的微笑迎接我,这是常事儿。

陷阱追击:关系词which引导非限制性定语从句时,可以代替先行词在定语从句作成分,也可以指代整个主句或主句的一部分在定语从句中做成分。本题中which指代的是一个主从复合句,而非简单句,增加了试题难度。非限制性定语从句被放在了从句和主句之间,不但增加了解题的难度而且给学生设置了陷阱,使得部分学生误将her当作先行词,而误选A。

正确解析:本题考查由which引导的非限制性定语从句,指代一个主从复合句。本题正常语序为Whenever I met her,she greeted me with a sweet smile,__________ was fairly often.故用关系代词which,正确答案为B。

陷阱例题③

I have often reached a point in my life __________ I am supposed to make decisions of my own.

【浙江高考】

A.which                                     B.where

C.how                                       D.why

句意提示:我已经到达了人生中的一个关键阶段,我应该自己做出决定。

陷阱追击:a point in my life可以理解为“人生道路上的一个转折点或关键阶段”,在定语从句中作地点状语,所以一定要用关系副词where,容易误选A。

正确解析:考查定语从句关系词的用法。在本题中先行词是a point,指地点。关系词在定语从句中代词先行词作地点状语,故用关系副词where,正确答案为B。

 

Final Check(实力测验)

1.用定语从句改写下列句子

1.I saw a student reading a newspaper in the corner.

_______________________________________________________________________________

2.A woman is standing near the exit.She is a guard.

_______________________________________________________________________________

3.A man is using the calculator.He is our accountant.

_______________________________________________________________________________

4.A dietitian is cooking the meal.She works for the museum.

_______________________________________________________________________________

5.The car was stolen from the square.It was found by the police.

_______________________________________________________________________________

6.The Great Wall is very beautiful.We visited it yesterday.

_______________________________________________________________________________

7.I am waiting for a woman at the gate of the hall.The woman is a friend of my mother’s.

_______________________________________________________________________________

8.This is a Chinese restaurant.I often go to the Chinese restaurant.

_______________________________________________________________________________

9.The lady’s necklace was lost the other day.The lady has reported it to the police.

_______________________________________________________________________________

10.Mr.Li has only two daughters.Both of them are doctors.

_______________________________________________________________________________

11.Do you remember the day?We first met on that day.

_______________________________________________________________________________

12.The boss made the workers work late again.That annoyed them.

_______________________________________________________________________________

2.选择填空

1.The woman __________ came yesterday is my mother.

A.who                                       B.whom

C.whose                                     D.which

2.Is the American film __________ you have seen interesting?

A.who                                       B.whom

C.that                                       D.when

3.Have you found the bike __________ was lost?

A.which                                     B.whose

C.when                                     D.where

4.The boy __________ is singing over there is Li Ming.

A.whose                                     B.that

C.which                                      D./

5.Do you know the man __________ our teacher is talking to?

A.which                                     B./

C.when                                     D.whose

6.The school __________ Li Fang is talking about is the best one here.

A.whose                                     B.that

C.when                                      D.where

7.She is the girl with __________ I went to Shanghai.

A.who                                       B.whom

C.which                                      D.that

8.Please show me the man __________ sister is a doctor.

A.who                                       B.whose

C.whom                                      D.that

9.Would you like to give me the book __________ cover is green?

A.who                                       B.that

C.which                                      D.whose

10.Look at the lady __________ name is Mary.

A.who                                       B.whose

C.whom                                      D.that

11.The visitors want to stay at the hotel __________ they stayed at last time.

A.where                                     B.when

C.what                                      D.which

12.The visitors want to stay at the hotel __________ they stayed last time.

A.where                                     B.when

C.what                                      D.which

13.The visitors want to stay at the hotel __________ they visited last time.

A.where                                     B.at that

C.which                                     D.at which

14.My friend __________ we have talked about before will come to see me.

A.who                                       B.about whom

C.what                                       D.which

15.This answering machine __________ I bought at a low price doesn’t work.

A.where                                     B.what

C.in which                                    D./

16.He found a wallet __________ there was a lot of money.

A.that                                       B.on which

C.where                                      D.which

17.I will never forget the day __________ I became a middle school student.

A.which                                      B.where

C.when                                      D.on that

18.The museum __________ we have visited is very old.

A.where                                      B.when

C.that                                        D.in which

19.The house __________ the famous writer lived is very old.

A.where                                      B.that

C.which                                       D.this

20.The clothes __________ are hanging in the closet have been washed.

A.they                                        B./

C.who                                        D.that

21.David thought his cousin was a person __________ he could rely on.

A.as                                        B.whom

C.whose                                     D.which

22.Where is the picture __________ you painted?

A.that                                      B.whom

C.on which                                  D.where

23.Return the tools to __________ gave them to you.

A.whatever                                  B.whichever

C.whoever                                   D.whomever

24.We must admire someone __________ has contributed so generously.

A.who                                      B.whom

C.to whom                                   D.whose

25.__________ are you saving this seat for?

A.Which                                     B.Whom

C.That                                       D.What

26.The exhibit __________ I enjoyed most was the auto show.

A.who                                       B.whom

C.what                                       D.that

27.Einstein was a man __________ influenced our ideas of time and space.

A.who                                       B.whom

C.whose                                     D.on whom

28.The reason __________ Mary came here was __________ she wanted to see me.

A.why;because                                B.why;that

C.that;because                                D.which;that

29.Sometimes the earthquake is so violent that it can destroy the whole city,__________ happened in Tangshan,in 1976.

A.as                                         B.that

C.which                                      D.when

30.Mary lost her bike last week.Today she found a young girl riding the same bike __________ hers.She has decided to tell the policeman.

A.as                                         B.that

C.which                                      D.when

31.Is there anything __________ I can do to help?

A.what                                      B.which

C.as                                         D.that

32.Professor Li,__________ we have long admired,is to have a lecture soon.

A.whose                                     B.that

C.which                                      D.who

33.The Summer Palace,__________ attracts many tourists,is very old and beautiful.

A.where                                     B.what

C.that                                       D.which

34.I like to go shopping on weekdays,__________ the shop isn’t crowded.

A.which                                     B.when

C.that                                       D.where

35.The play won’t be put on in Beijing this year,__________ makes us disappointed.

A.that                                      B.when

C.what                                     D.which

36.Yang Liwei,__________ parents are both teachers,is the first man in China who has traveled into space.

A.who                                      B.whom

C.whose                                     D.who’s

37.The next Olympic Games are in two years,__________ I will be a university student.

A.on which time                              B.in which

C.by which time                               D.which

38.The castle is the place,__________ I most like to be in the summer.

A.which                                     B.that

C.where                                     D.when

39.David helped me clean up,__________ was very kind of him.

A.who                                      B.whom

C.which                                     D.that

40.The tigers in the zoo are heavy,__________ is more than 200 pounds.

A.that                                      B.which

C.the biggest                                 D.the biggest of which

3.把下列简单句变为带有定语从句的复合句

1.The movie advertised in the paper is shown on weekdays.

_______________________________________________________________________________

2.The jewelry guarded by the policeman was very expensive.

_______________________________________________________________________________

3.I bought a brochure written by a famous artist.

_______________________________________________________________________________

4.The woman waiting for the bus looks angry.

_______________________________________________________________________________

5.The coats hung in the checkroom belonged to the tourists.

_______________________________________________________________________________

6.Coats left in the checkroom are rarely lost.

_______________________________________________________________________________

7.The boys playing tennis are my friends.

_______________________________________________________________________________

8.He had a letter written in French.

_______________________________________________________________________________

9.She is the girl called Mary.

_______________________________________________________________________________

10.I know the boy running in the park.

_______________________________________________________________________________

4.汉译英

1.在画廊中展览的那个雕刻已经卖出去了。

_______________________________________________________________________________

2.这些外国人明天要去参观他们昨天晚上听说过的那个纪念馆。

_______________________________________________________________________________

3.昨天你在剧院见到的那个人是我哥哥。

_______________________________________________________________________________

4.王明,就是你昨天在剧院见到的那个人,他是我的姐夫。

_______________________________________________________________________________

5.我们经常去的那个超市今天不开门。

_______________________________________________________________________________

6.那个在战争中失去了丈夫和儿子的妇女不得不搬到了另一个城市。

_______________________________________________________________________________

7.这个县城所处的山谷污染得很厉害。

_______________________________________________________________________________

8.下周一我必须去参加一个重要的会议,也就是说我就不能去看你了。

_______________________________________________________________________________

9.我父母来这儿(的原因)就是想照顾我。

_______________________________________________________________________________

10.你还记得我们整夜没睡觉看电视的那一年的除夕吗?

_______________________________________________________________________________

KEYS:

1.1.I saw a student who was reading a newspaper in the corner.

2.The woman who is standing near the exit is a guard.

3.The man who is using the calculator is our accountant.

4.The dietitian who is cooking the meal works for the museum.

5.The car that/which was stolen from the square was found by the police.

6.The Great Wall (that/which) we visited yesterday is very beautiful.

7.The woman (who/whom) I am waiting for at the gate of the hall is a friend of my mother’s.

8.This is the Chinese restaurant (that/which) I often go to.

9.The lady whose necklace was lost the other day has reported it to the police.

10.Mr.Li has only two daughters,who are doctors./Mr.Li has only two daughters,both of whom are doctors.

11.Do you remember the day (when/that) we first met?

12.The boss made the workers work late again,which annoyed them.

2.1-5 ACABB     6-10 BBBDB     11-15 DACAD     16-20 CCCAD     21-25 BACAB

26-30 DABAA     31-35 DDDBD     36-40 CCCCD

解说:13.注意定语从句中关系代词和关系副词的使用。把这道题和前面两道题比较一下即可发现,由于关系词是定语从句的组成部分,因此要注意它们在从句中充当什么句子成分。在第11题里,关系词充当介词at的宾语,必须用关系代词。在第12题中,关系词充当地点状语,可以用关系副词where或词组at which来表示;在本题中,关系词应为动词visited的宾语,所以必须用关系代词。

31.由于先行词是anything,所以此时关系代词只能用that。

33.这道题的先行词(the Summer Palace)后有逗号,所以后面的句子是非限定性定语从句。在非限定性定语从句中关系代词指事物时,不可以用that,必须用which。

35.在非限定性定语从句中,which不但可以指代前面句子中某个特定的词,也可以用来指前面所讲的整个事情。

3.1.The movie that was advertised in the paper is shown on weekdays.

2.The jewelry that was guarded by the policeman was very expensive.

3.I bought a brochure that was written by a famous artist.

4.The woman who’s waiting for the bus looks angry.

5.The coats that were hung in the checkroom belonged to the tourists.

6.Coats that are left in the checkroom are rarely lost.

7.The boys who/that are playing tennis are my friends.

8.He had a letter that/which was written in French.

9.She is the girl that/who is called Mary./She is the girl whose name is Mary.

10.I know the boy who/that is running in the park.

4.1.The sculpture that/which was shown in the gallery has been sold.

2.The foreigners will visit the monument tomorrow that they heard about last night.

3.The man (who/whom) you met at the theatre yesterday is my brother.

4.Wang Ming,whom you met at the theatre yesterday is my brother-in-law.

5.The supermarket (that)/which we usually go to is closed today.

6.The woman whose husband and son were killed during the war had to move to another city.

7.The valley where/in which the town lies is heavily polluted.

8.I have to attend an important meeting next Monday,which means I won’t be able to see you.

9.The reason why/(that) my parents come here is that they want to look after me.

10.Do you remember the Eve of the New Year (when/that) we stayed up the whole night watching TV?

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