万圣节前夕 Hallowe’en

2021年1月17日
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万圣节前夕 Hallowe’en

Hallowe'en is a popular festival in many countries all over the world, and every year it seems to get bigger.

万圣节是在世界上许多国家都很受欢迎的节日。每年对万圣节的庆祝似乎变得越来越隆重。

It's getting dark earlier and it's starting to get cold. Christmas is still a long way away. We need something to cheer us up and take our minds of the fact that winter is nearly here. See how much you know about the traditional festival of Hallowe'en.

天黑得越来越早,天气变得越来越冷。圣诞节还远着呢。我们需要找点乐子,好来排遣对于冬日将要到来的不安。那么就看看你对传统的万圣节的了解有多少吧。

一、The origins of the name

The festival of Hallowe'en has its roots in Celtic and Roman traditions. Over 2,000 years ago the Celts in Britain, Ireland and parts of France celebrated Samhain to mark the beginning of winter. When the Romans invaded, they merged this with Feralia, their celebration of the passing of the dead. As Christianity spread, the Church tried to replace these pagan feasts with official Church holy days. One of these was November 1. It was called “All Hallows”, and October 31 was known as “All Hallows' Eve”, and then Hallowe'en.

一、名称的由来

万圣节根源于凯尔特人和罗马人的传统。 两千多年前,凯尔特人在不列颠、 爱尔兰和法国的部分地方庆祝夏末,以标志冬天的开始。罗马人入侵后, 他们将它与费纳列节合并,以纪念去世的人。由于基督教的广泛传播, 教会设法以正式的宗教节日来取代这些异教节日。其中的11月1 日被称为“万圣节”, 那么10月31日就是“万圣节的前夕”, 这就是Hallowe'en的来历。

二、Hallowe'en traditions

In the past there was a tradition called “souling”. Poor people went around houses asking for food. In exchange, they promised to say prayers for the dead. People no longer go souling, but the habit has been transformed into  a modern Hallowe'en game for children in America, who dress up as ghosts, witches and monsters and go around people's houses.

二、万圣节的传统

过去有个传统称“祷灵”。穷苦的人挨家挨户地去乞讨食物。作为回报, 他们会许诺替行善者死去的亲人们做祷告。现在人们不再祷灵, 但这些习惯却变成现代美国孩子们的游戏,他们穿戴成鬼魂、巫婆和妖怪的样子在人们的房子四周游荡。

三、Witches

Hallowe'en wouldn't be fun without witches. Witches have always been part of popular folklore. Shakespeare's play Macbeth opens with three witches. A witch was someone — usually a woman — who had special powers and had dealings with the devil. The American town, Salem, is famous for the “witchcraft trials”, which took place there in 1692.

三、巫婆

没有巫婆,万圣节前夜将没有乐趣。巫婆总是最流行的民间传说中的一部分。莎士比亚的戏剧《麦克白》就是以三个巫婆的出场开始的。巫师,通常是女巫,就是拥有特殊法力并和魔鬼有来往的人。美国小城塞勒姆, 曾因1692 年发生在那里的“巫师审判案”而出名。

四、Pumpkins

The pumpkin has become a symbol of Hallowe'en. People empty a pumpkin, cut a face into the side, and put a candle inside to make a lamp. It's known as a Jack O'Lantern, from a story about a man called Jack, who made a deal with the devil.

四、南瓜

南瓜已经成为万圣节的标志。人们掏空南瓜,在上面凿出脸的形状,然后在里面放根蜡烛制成灯。这就是杰克灯笼,源于一个叫杰克的人的故事,他(居然傻到)和魔鬼做了个交易。

五、Animals

Black cats, frogs, mice and spiders are just some of the animals associated with Hallowe'en. Generally, the more unpleasant the animal, the stronger the Hallowe'en connection. Nocturnal animals like bats are particular favourites, and if, as is the case with vampire bats, they like drinking blood, they are high on the Hallowe'en list.

五、动物

、 青蛙、 老鼠和蜘蛛是一些与万圣节有关的动物。通常来说,越是让人感到害怕的动物,与万圣节的联系就越紧密。像蝙蝠这样晚上活动的动物就极受欢迎, 而且如果它们喜欢喝血,就像吸血蝙蝠那样,就更受欢迎了。

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