图片[1]-不定式作副词的用法-小e英语课堂-英语翻译_ 英语语法基础知识大全_英语手抄报_英语作文不定式作副词的用法
不定式在句子中的作用有时和副词相同,在句子中可以担任状语,
表示目的、原因,有时也表示结果。另外当副词用的不定式也可以修饰
形容词。
不定式紧跟在及物动词后面时,它充当宾语,不定式紧跟在不及物
动词之后,往往充当状语。
1 表原因
1.不定式可以在表示感情的形容词后面来修饰该形容词,表
示原因。
常用于这种结构的形容词和过去分词有:
happy,glad,delighted,pleased,sorry,eager,anxious,lucky, fortunate,unfortunate,proud,angry,surprised,frightened, disappointed,ready,clever,willing,foolish,worthy 等等。 He is lucky to get here on time. 他很幸运,按时到达这儿。
Li Ming seemed willing to do that. 李明似乎很高兴干那件事。
Be carefrl not to catch a cold.
小心别感冒。
2.修饰表示感情以外的形容词
用一起这类结构中,常用的形容词有:easy,difficult,hard, comfortable,pleasant。而此种句子的主语可以是人,也可以是物。 It is not good for your eyes to read in the sun. 在阳光下看书对你的眼睛不好。
The house is very comfortable to live in. 物
这是一座住起来很舒服的房子。
We found him was easy to get along with. 人
我们发现他是个很好相处的人。
2 表目的
He came to help me with my maths. 他来这儿是为了帮我学数学。
I study hard to serve the people well. 我好好学习为了将来好好为人民服务。
不定式在句子中担当状语,表目的的情况很多,很常见。
1.放在句首,加强语气
有时为了加强语气,把作目的状语的不定式提前,提到句首来。
To serve the people well I study hard. 为了更好地为人民服务,我好好学习。
2.在不定式前加上 in order 或 so as’加强语气。
如果要想再加强语气,在不定式前还可以加in order 和so as⋯(即 词组 in ordr to do ⋯so as to do ⋯) In order to serve the people well I study hard. 为了更地为人民服务,我好好地学习。
I study hard so as to serve the people well. 为了更好地为人民服务,我好好地学习。
注意
in order to do sth.和 so as to do sth.的区别 1.so as to 引出的目的状语不能放在句首。
In order to 引出的目的状语可以放在句首或句尾。
She look a bus so as not to be late.
In order not to be late she book a bus. =She took a bus in order not to be late.
她乘坐公共汽车以免迟到。
2.so as to这一词级也可表结果,但要分开写。
so as + so as to+
不定式表目的
⋯ 不定式表结果
ì í î
You are so kind as to show me the way.(表结果) 你真好,给我指路。
They started early so as to catch the first bus.(表目的)
他们很早就出发了,以便能赶上头班车。
They started so early as to catch the first bus.(表结果) 他们动身很,所以(结果)就赶上头班车了。
3.有时so⋯as to do的句型还可以表示程度。(△△) He was so angry as to be unable to speak. 他气得连话都说不出来了。
3 表结果
不定式经常和only,never连用,强调结果和失望的情绪。 I hurried to get there only to find him out. 我匆匆忙忙地赶到那儿,(没想到)他出去了。
After that day they were seperated, never to see each other again. 那天他们被分开之后,再没见过面。
4 其它用法
1.句型:too+adj./adv.+(for sb.)+to do sth.
在这种结构中,不定式在句子中作结果状语。在这里“too”表示“more than enough”(过分)了,就成了否定意思。 The book is too hard for the boy to read. =The book is so hard that the byoy can’t read it. a.这本书对于这个男孩来说是太难了,他读不了。(难得过分了, 以至于不能读了,表示相反的意思)
She is too young to go to school. =She is so young that she can’t go to school. 她太小了,不能上学。(太年轻了,太小了,结果就不能上学)
This problem is too difficult(for us)to work out.
注意
用 too⋯to 句型,不定式 work out 不能再加上 it 代 problem。用 so⋯that 复合句时,则必须用 it。 不定式 to work out 用主动式而不能用被动式 to be worked out。 因为这个不定式状语本身含有被动含义。
=This problem is so hard that we can’t work it out. 这道题太难了,根本算不出来。
We are never too old to learn. 用never,too否定之否定,译文就为肯定意思了。
我们活到老,学到老。(我们绝不至于太老了而不能学习了)
b.在这里还要说明的一点是,too除了我们常见的上述(a.)例句 中的当“more than enough ”(过分)讲外,有时还当作“十分”“非 常”“极其”等带有肯定意义讲,但此时形容词一般用eager,anxious 等。
The sutdents are too anxious to know the result of the exam. (不定式作原因状语)
She is too eager to see her sister.(不定式作原因状语) 她非常渴望见到她的姐姐。
c.在 too 前面加 only 或 but(相当于 really)以加强语气。 The girl is only too glad to come here. 这个女孩子真是很高兴来这儿。 d.在文章中 too⋯to 结构经常省 略不定式。
必背!
“too⋯not to⋯”是双重否定,意思是“非常⋯⋯不能不”。 She is too wise not to see that. 她很聪明,不会不懂得那一点。
The shoes are too big for me .(to wear) =The shoes are much too big. 这双鞋我穿着太大了。(这双鞋对于我来说太大了,以至于不能穿)
The rice is too hot for the baby(to eat). 这米饭太烫了,孩子吃不了。
e.有时句末的不定式还可以用一个介词短语来代替。 He is driving too fast for safety.(介词短语) =He is driving too fast to be safe.(不定式) 他开车太快,怕不安全。
2.不定式修饰副词 enough 的用法
He is old enough to go to school.
He is so old that he can go to school. =He is too young to go to school. 他已经到了上学的年龄了。
The road is wide enough for three horses to go. =The road is so wide that three houses can go. 这条马路够宽的,可以让三匹马并排走。
3.不定式在句中作为独立成分
有时不定式在句子中作为独立结构出现,用来说明说话人的态度。
一般来讲,人们已经把这引起不定式作为固定词组,固定搭配来运用。
To tell you the truth,I don’t think the film is good. 说老实话,我认为这个电影并不好。
To be fair,it is not all his fault. 说句公道话,还不全是他的错。
To be frank, you are lying. 坦率地说,你在说谎。
It is a good idea,to be sure; but it is hard to practise.
的确,这是个好主意,但是难以实行。
To make matters worse, it began to turn dark. 更糟的天开始变黑了。
He knows English and French, not to speak of German. 他懂得英语和法语,更别说德语了。

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