图片[1]-动名词与不定式的比较有什么不同?-小e英语课堂-英语翻译_ 英语语法基础知识大全_英语手抄报_英语作文动名词与不定式的比较
一般来说,动名词着重进程,不定式着重结果。如:
(1)Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。 (2)To see is to believe. (3)Your work needs correcting. 你写的东西需要修改。 (4)Your work needs to be correcting. (5)I prefer staying indoors on cold winter evenings. 在冬天的夜晚我宁愿待在家里。 (6)I prefer to stay indoors on cold winter evenings.
但有时二者意义有差异:
1)动名词的逻辑主语可能泛指人们,而不定式的逻辑主语则常常是句子中的名词或代词。
如:
(7)I scorn telling lies. 我蔑视说慌。 (8)I scorn to tell a lies. 我不屑于说慌。 (9)I hate smoking. 我讨厌吸烟。 (10)I hate to smoke. 我不爱吸烟。
2)动名词表一般或抽象的多次性行为,而不定式则往往表具体的或一次性的动作。试比较:
(11)Playing with fire is dangerous. 玩火危险。(泛指玩火) (12)To play with fire will be dangerous. 玩火会发生危险。(指一具体动作)
(13)Talking for hours at a stretch is more exhausting than you seem to think. 一连讲几个小时
的话会比你似乎想象的要累。(泛指讲话)
(14)To talk for hours at a stretch is more exhausting than you seem to think. 你一连讲几个小
时的话可比你似乎想象的要累。(指一个人的感受)
3)在某些动词之后只能用动名词,而另一些动词之后只能用不定式。常后接动名词的动词
有 acknowledge,admit,advocate,avoid,consider,contemplate,defer,delay,deny,dislike, enjoy,escape,evade,fancy,finish,grudge,imagine,include,keep,mind,miss,postpone, practise,recall,recollect,repent,resent,resist,risk,stop,suggest 等;短语动词有 have done,give up 等。
常后接不定式的动词有 afford,agree,aim,ask,claim,choose,decide,decline,demand, expect,desire,determine,fail,hope,manage,offer,plan,pretend,promise,refuse, resolve,threaten,wish 等。
[注]care,hesitate,long,bother,tend,trouble 等皆为不及物动词,故其后接的不定式不
是宾语,而是状语。
4)有不少动词既可后接动名词亦可后接不定式,常见的有 attempt,begin,continue,deserve,
disdain,dread,endure,neglect,omit,prefer,proceed,propose,regret,remember,scorn, start,try,want 等。
上述动词后接的动名词与不定式在意义上往往没有什么区别。但有时二者意义却有所不同。
试比较:
(15)Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door. 前门如没有人答应,
你就敲后门试试看。(try意为“试”)
(16)Try to get some sleep. 试图去睡一会儿吧。(try 意为“试图”或“企图”) (17)I regret missing the film. 我懊悔没有看上那部电影。(动名词 missing 指过去) (18)I regret to say that I cannot come. 我很抱歉,不能来了。(不定式 to say 指现在) (19)I can’t help laughing. 我不禁笑了起来。(help 后接动名词意谓“避免”) (20)I can’t help to clean the place up. 我不能帮助打扫这地方。(help 后接不定式意谓“帮
助”)
(21)She proposes catching the early train. 她建议赶早班火车。 (22)She proposes to catch the early train. 她打算去赶早班火车。
(23)This means helping you. 这意味着帮助你。(mean 后接动名词意谓“意味着”) (24)This means to help you. 这意在帮你。(mean 在此后接不定式意谓“意在”)
5)动词stop和quit可后接动名词和不定式,但两者的句子功用不同。试比较:
(25)He stopped smoking last week. 他上星期戒了烟。(stop在此是及物动词,动名词smoking
是宾语)
(26)He stopped to smoke. 他停下来吸烟。(stop 在此是不及物动词,不定式 to smoke 用
作目的状语)
(27)I’ve quit smoking. 我已戒烟。(quit 在此是及物动词,动名词 smoking 是宾语) (28)At noon the men quit to eat. 中午工人们停下来吃饭。(quit 在此是不及物动词,不定
式 to eat 用作目的状语)
短语动词go on后接的动名词与不定式不仅其句子功用不同,其含义亦不一样。试比较:
(29)They went on talking. 他们继续谈着。(动名词 talking 是宾语,意谓不停地谈下去) (30)They went on to talk about other matters. 他们接着又谈别的事情。(不定式 to talk 是
目的状语,意谓接着做另一件事)
6)有的动词其后接的动名词表已完成的动作,不定式则表未完成的动作。如:
(31)I remember locking the door. 我记得把门锁上了。(locking 表已完成的动作) (32)Remember to lock the door. 记得要锁门。(to lock 表未完成的动作) (33)He enjoys visiting. 他对访问感到愉快。(visiting 表已完成的动作) (34)He expects to visit. 他期望访问。(to visit 表未完成的动作)
动词forget(常用过去一般时与现在完成时)后亦可接不定式或动名词。其后的不定式表未 完成的动作。如:
(35)I forgot to buy the book . 我忘买书了。 (36)He has forgotten to pay back the money he borrowed. 他忘记还所借的款。
动词forget(但常用于将来一般时的否定和疑问结构)后接的动名词表已完成的动作。如:
(37)I shall never forget seeing the Swiss Alps for the first time. 我将永不会忘记第一次看到瑞
士阿尔卑斯山时的情景。
(38)Shall you ever forget hearing her sing? 你会忘记听她的歌唱吗?
偶尔也用于现在时态。如:
(39)I forget posting it. 我忘记已把它寄出去了。
如用过去一般时 forgot,则应先接介词 about,再接动名词。如:
(40)I forgot about doing it. 我忘记已做此事了。
或后接从句。如:
(41)I forgot that I had done it.
7)在含有 cannot(could not)的否定结构中,有的动词须后接动名词,有的动词则多后接不定 式。如:
(42)I can’t stand being kept waiting. 我不堪久候。(can’t stand 后接动名词) (43)She could not forbear to cry out. 她不由得喊叫起来。(could not forbear 后接不定式)
8)有些动词后接动名词主动式可表被动意义,而不定式则须用其被动式表被动意义。如:
(44)I won’t bear thinking of. 我不堪被人想念。 (45)I won’t bear to be thought about. (46)It needs repairing. 它需要修理。 (47)It needs to be repaired.
9)有些动词在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。如:
(48)It started raining. 开始下雨了。 (49)It started to rain. (50)I fear offending her. 我害怕冒犯她。 (51)I fear to offend her.
10)在 should(would) like,love 等之后须用不定式。如: (52)I’d like to thank you again. 我愿再次感谢你。 (53)I’d love to come sometime. 日后我愿意来的。
11)修饰上需要变换,为了避免连用不定式或动名词。如:
(54)The students have begun planning to open a class on the correct use of characters for workers in nearby factories. 学生们已开始计划为附近工厂的工人开办一个正确运用汉字的
班。(这里用动名词 planning 显然较好,如用不定式 to plan 则很难上口)

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